How to grow seedlings of tomatoes at home: Rules of successful cultivation of seedlings in the apartment
Quite often, the cultivation of the seedlings of tomatoes occurs even from the experienced dacities. Someone, all seedlings are elongated and weak, at someone - suddenly begins to fall and gradually dies. The thing is that it is difficult to maintain ideal conditions for growing seedlings. Seedlings of any plants, including tomatoes, need to provide a lot of light, sufficient humidity and optimal temperature. We have already shared experience with you how to grow tomatoes without seedlings.
In this with Tate, we will share with you secrets how to grow seedlings of tomatoes at home . On the important points that you need to know and abide by the cultivation of seedlings in the apartment.
Do not hurry with sowing! One of the rules of successful growing seedlings of tomatoes at home
Most often, inexperienced dacities can not correctly determine the date of sowing, they are in a hurry, seeking early harvest. Too early seeding seedlings in the face of the apartment develops, pulls out, and after disembarking into the ground - for a long time. Therefore, it is difficult to get an early and decent harvest from such plants. Frequently starting fruit plants planted in later and favorable time.
Dates of seeding are very different depending on the region of residence, the climatic conditions of particular locality. It is also very important to know where tomatoes will be planted in the future - to a greenhouse or open ground. It is also important and such a moment - whether you have the opportunity to hide the planted plants in the case of returned cold weather, or you cannot often come to your site. In the latter case, it is better not to hurry.
The easiest way to count the dates of seed seeds is next. From the approximate date of plant landing in a greenhouse or an open ground to count in the reverse order of the recommended age of growing seedlings and time for germination of seeds (for tomatoes - somewhere one week).
The age of growing seedlings of tomatoes at home is reference data developed on the basis of many years of plant growing practices. For late satisfying varieties and hybrids, a period of 70 days is considered at the stage of growing seedlings, the average - 55-60 days, early grades - 45-55 days.
The estimated dates of the disembarkation are determined by almost perennial landing dates in this area. But, of course, with amendment on the weather conditions of a specific time, these deadlines may be very different by year.
Under the conditions of cultivation of the seedlings of the tomato at home, on time attended seedlings - strong, chorenny, in the future it is good and evolves.
Do not neglect the preparation of the soil! An important rule of good tomato seedlings
The causative agent of the plant's disease "rotting the root neck of seedlings", or simply "black leg" is always present in the soil. Therefore, in order to avoid the death of young plants from this disease, be sure to disinfect the soil.
It is not necessary to suffer with the drank of the soil mixture in the oven or quarreling it on the balcony. Now there are modern drugs, for example, "phytoosporin". It can be used both for treating the soil and for drying seeds (but only according to the instructions). This is not a chemical, and the biopreparation, which is important for opponents of the use of "chemistry" when growing plants.
How to grow seedlings of tomatoes at home: Proper processing of seeds before sowing
Not all amateur gardeners know that many pathogens of diseases persist in seeds. And diseases of tomatoes there are quite a lot. Therefore, it is very important to carry out the treatment of tomato seeds for the prevention of the occurrence of various diseases.
The easiest and most frequently used method of treatment of seeds is an etching in a 1% solution of "manganese" (a solution of saturated pink color). Treatment is carried out for 20-30 minutes. After that, the seeds are necessarily washed with clean water.
How to drain the seeds of tomatoes on seedlings at home
Seeds are sized according to the scheme: 4-5 cm. The distance between rows and 1-2 cm - between plants. Seeding depth of seeds is about 1 cm. If they are sown deeper, then shoots can be uneven. Observe the distance between seeds when crops. If the seeds are sown too often, then in the future the seedlings will interfere with each other to develop, and excessive density of plants can provoke the development of the "black leg".
Helpful advice! It is more convenient to make marking with a ruler, and then neatly tweezed seed seeds.
Right temperature seedlings at home
For germination, tomato seeds need a temperature of at least + 22 ... + 25 °C. When placing tanks with a seedler, it is necessary to take into account that even in a warm apartment with good windows directly on the windowsill, especially closer to the glasses, the temperature is much lower. If the containers with crops are placed in such conditions, then the seeds simply do not go. It is necessary or to insulate the windowsill, or put to the window next to the heating battery any bedside table, a table, etc., where and place the seedlings.
If you are not an experienced gardener, then put an ordinary thermometer next to the sowing plates. Then you will be easier to control the temperature regime, because the death of the embryo seed can be both due to too low and high temperatures.
When shoots appear to increase the growth of the root system, the temperature is reduced to + 12 ... + 15 °With about 4-7 days. When young seedlings grow slightly, the temperature starts to maintain at + 18 ... + 22 ° C during the day, + 14 ... + 16 ° C at night. At higher temperatures, seedlings can begin to stretch.
On modern windows, adjust the temperature is simple enough, you can set the microwing mode, which will ensure the influx of air without creating drafts.
How to write tomato seedlings in the apartment
Tomatoes - plants are light-minded, for normal development, they necessarily need a lot of light. Therefore, firstly, it is very important to determine the amount of seedlings that you can place on the windowsill or special devices. All plants should be well provided with light during cultivation.
Secondly, with early crop seedlings need to be heated. For this you can use special phytolambamps. But these lamps are quite expensive, many gardeners instead use ordinary daylight lamps.
For the full development of seedlings of tomatoes, a light day is needed at least 11-13 hours a day. With early sowing, seedlings are usually charged for 2-3 hours in the morning and in the evening, as soon as most shoots appear. If you for some reason are late with sowing, try creating a light day for seedlings about 16 hours a day, then its growth will be more intense.
In addition to lamps, to improve the seedlings lighting mode, you can use foil screens placed directly before sedation.
How to water the seedlings of tomatoes in the apartment
The soil in tanks for sowing should be wet, but not too converted, otherwise the seeds are rotten. Shoots are better not to water, but spray from the pulverizer, maintaining the soil in a wet state.
Water for watering must be warm. If water is plumbing, then it needs to be given to be all the chlorine. You can not water the seedlings of tomatoes overnight, only during the day. Shoots during excess moisture and cold soil can die from the "black leg". Simply put, this disease develops in crude and cold soil.
When to pix the seedlings of tomatoes at home
If you grow seedlings of tomatoes at home not in separate cups, but in a common capacity, it will need to be sked. It is necessary that the plants as they grow normally develop and have no shortage of lighting, moisture and nutrition elements. In close conditions of the plant will not be able to form a powerful root system, which will later affect the development of plants, and, consequently, on the crop.
In horticultural books, it is usually recommended to start picking when plants appear two real leaves. Some gardeners with experience advise to start picking when four real leaves appear. At this time, the plants are already quite hardened and better transfer the transplant procedure.
Another advice from experienced summer residents - When picking at the bottom of the cup, placing 2-3 superphosphate granules. Tomatoes are very sensitive to this nutritional element. As the seedlings granted the granules of the superphosphate will be gradually dissolved and used by plants.
When picking the plant, one by one neatly seed into the cups and put on a layer of soil to the level of seven-coal (first) leaves.
As for the chipquarters of 1/3 of the root of the root of opinion divided. Some gardeners advise not to injure the root system, others believe that the purchase is necessary for the formation of a branched root system.
After the recording procedure, the plants are never set immediately on the window. The root system needs to be given the opportunity to take care. For this plant must be left for a couple of days in the cool. They can be covered with a piece of polyethylene film, underfloor material, and sprinkle with a sprayer from the sprayer. In such conditions, seedlings will be easier to transfer the transplant process.
While the plants are coming around, feeding their fertilizers is not recommended, otherwise the root system burns are possible. Usually, the feeding is proceeded 10-14 days after the dive.
How to properly feed the seedlings of tomatoes at home
Without feeding, good seedlings of tomatoes grow home hard, but sometimes gardeners flip their plants. If you planted seeds into high-quality soil, then before picking seedlings, the fertilizer can not be used. In the future (10-14 days after the dive), seedlings can be picked up by any comprehensive fertilizer for seedlings, they are now very much on sale.
The feeders are carried out every 10 days. In no case cannot increase the concentration of fertilizers, so as not to burn the root system. When applying fertilizers, first moist the soil layer, and then make fertilizers.
Tomato seedlings planted in poor or too acidic soil may experience lack of nutritional elements. This can be judged by the appearance of plants - they are poorly developing.
If the leaves of seedlings of tomatoes are raised up, their edges are tightened inside, and the streaks are purple - this is a sign of phosphorus shortage. These symptoms can be both too low, and illumination. If everything is in order with these factors, then plants need fertilizers containing phosphorus.
With a lack of potassium in leafy plates, there is drying edges.
Nitrogen fasting is accompanied by a change in the color of the leaves - they become pale, with a yellow tint, and the lifts of the sheet blush.
Most often, the lack of nutrition elements is experiencing a "distorted" seedlings, which is no longer enough for the volume of soil for growing.
How and when to order the seedlings of the tomato before falling into the ground
The conditions for growing seedlings in the apartment are very much different from the further conditions of growing tomatoes in the soil. Even the most unpretentious varieties grown in the room will be fused. Therefore, that seedlings quickly fit and went to growth in a new place, it is necessary to gradually teach to the new (future) conditions.
The hardening process usually begins approximately 10 days before disembarking and consists in a gradual change in conditions. To do this, the temperature of the content of tomatoes at night is gradually lowered to + 12 ... + 14 °FROM.
Seedlings can be handled on the balcony, so the plants will be used to change the temperature and illumination. To do this, they are brought to the balcony, gradually increasing the term of its content in the new conditions. Simultaneously with a decrease in temperature, the amount of polyvs seedlings reduce. Gradually accustomed to new seedlings will faster transfers stressful conditions from transplant and moves into growth.
As you can see, the main conditions for the cultivation of tomatoes seedlings are not very complex. You just need to just assimilate them and then the question how to grow seedlings of tomatoes at home It will not seem so difficult and burdensome.
Video: Correct the seedlings of tomatoes at home
Tomatoes are thermal-loving vegetables, therefore require appropriate cultivation of seedlings. To ensure high and possibly early harvest, young plants must be created optimal conditions for growth and development. In this article we will tell how to raise tomato seedlings when planting seeds than to feed the seedlings about other plant care agricultures.
To get a good yield of tomatoes, it is very important to choose correctly to choose a variety suitable for specific conditions - climate, soil, duration of the day, with the desired characteristics of the fruit. It is worth a variety of a long-lasting seasonal period. To increase yield and get an earlier harvest, it is necessary to grow tomatoes with a seaside.
To get a strong seedlings, it is important to use soil and good quality seeds, and then provide optimal conditions. Seedlings can be grown at home, and then dive into the pots for growing at home or in a greenhouse.
Preparation of soil
Tomatoes are often grown in a greenhouse from polycarbonate, a tunnel, a greenhouse from the film. Tomatoes are grown in the same place for several years. Sometimes peat, straw or manure is added to the soil for seedlings of tomatoes. However, even after such an "improvement", the soil for seedlings does not provide optimal air-water and thermal conditions - usually it is poorly permeable and cold.
In addition, the enrichment of the soil in any amount of low peat or manure causes an uncontrolled increase in nutrient content. Usually such situations are found even from experienced farmers. After analyzing the substrate during the cultivation of seedlings, it turns out that the nutrient content is several times higher than the applicable recommendations.
The basis of the production of healthy seedlings is the analysis of the substrate and the corresponding interpretation of the results. After their preparation, the nutrient content should be brought to optimal values. The acidity of the soil should be equal to pH 5.5-6.0.
Optimal content of batteries
|Battery||mg / in dm 3Soil|
If the content of any component exceeds the optimal values, it should be given to the possibility of adding an acidic or stretched peat, depending on the needs, and conduct other chemical analysis of the substrate.
The most common error is an abnormal addition to compost or manure to the land. After picking or disembarking in the soils, when plants begin to grow, it becomes all warmer, the organic substance is uncontrollably decomposed on minerals. As a result, too much salinity is created, the plants are darked, their growth is inhibited - with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the soil, tomatoes begin to die (root system destroys). Such situations usually do not occur if the greenhouses open and the temperature is close to the outer, and the substrate is not very heated too much.
For growing tomatoes in pots, it is important to acquire a substrates of good quality for a number of reasons:
- The nutrient content must be optimal for plants.
- When buying a finished substrate, there is no need to conduct chemical analyzes and painstaking felling fertilizers.
- The substrate represents a mixture of several peat species, providing its good impregnation and no flooding problems with excessive irrigation, as well as the uniform distribution of the water supplied in all directions in the pot, and not only down through the formed spaces.
You should choose soils that have expiration data, usually 6 months. The substrate must be free from pathogens, have the appropriate air-water properties, be rich in nutrients.
To prepare the earth for seedlings, often use riding peat. The raw riding peat is not suitable for sowing seeds, as it is sour (pH 3.5-4.0) and poor nutrients. It has a greater capacity of water, and at the same time airiness is 30-40% of its volume. For sowing, tomato seeds use a fraction of 0-10 mm. To improve physical properties to the composition of the soil for seedlings, you can add:
If a garden land is used for seedlings, a mixture is necessary to be processed - spilled by a solution of manganese or to disappear, to roast in the oven to get rid of the argument of mushrooms.
Preparation of tanks
For planting seeds of tomatoes, drawers, pots, cassettes, peat pots and pills are used to seed. It is convenient to use peat pots, because they decompose in the ground, and the plant is planted right in it. Thus, the roots will remain integers and the plants will receive the best principle.
When using pots, previously used, it is necessary to treat them from fungal solid with a solution of fungicide or manganese.
Selection of varieties, preparation of seeds
To achieve optimal results, it is important to use seeds with good germination and energy. It is important to store them in appropriate conditions, avoiding extremely low and high temperatures.
There is a huge selection of tomato seeds. It is worth choosing early varieties. If summer is rainy, tomatoes can get phytoofluorosis, especially in the open soil. Consequently, the earlier the fruits will be, the more it will be possible to assemble until possible infection. Practice shows that the infection of bushes means a quick loss of productivity, therefore it is worth putting the early, early varieties.
Typically, seed seeds are protected from fungal diseases, so they are processed only from pests, such as dry powdered drugs, semi-dry or soaking in the preparation.
Tomato seeds are usually sown in boxes with a small substrate. In one box of 40 × 60 cm in size, you need to sink about 500 seeds. Often, even 1000 seeds are trying to sow in such a box, which is unreasonable for economic reasons.
Most of the seeds of soil tomatoes are sold packed by weight, not ply. The weight of 1000 seeds of one variety can change from year to year, so you should always check how many seeds in each package.
Too high density leads to shooting shoots. Plants become sluggish, high, the root system is underdeveloped. Such seedlings are poorly divert, especially in cassettes that have limited depth.
Too deep picking is also harmful to plants. The significant length of the stem is in contact with the cold and very humid soil, which increases the risk of rot.
Dates of sowing
The production of seedlings takes 4-6 weeks, it should be considered by deciding when sow seeds in each region. This period is shorter as the lighting conditions improve.
The seeding period also depends on the type of variety:
- Associated varieties are seeded 50-60 days before landing on a permanent place.
- Estimal varieties are seeded a week later later.
In unheated greenhouses, seedlings are planted for 2-3 weeks earlier than the seedlings are seeded into the ground.
So that the seedlock was ready for landing in mid-May, sowing is carried out at the end of March. Of course, when planting tomatoes on seedlings depends on the region and the duration of planting in the ground. In the south of sowing can be held at the end of February, in the suburbs - in early mid-mid of March, in the Urals, in Siberia - in April. Sowing seeds spend no later than April 15th.
It is important to choose the right time to plant a tomato on the cultivation of seedlings. It should not be sowing tomatoes too early to transplant in the soil in time if there is a seedlings, you will have to tinker with it before landing. It is also important not to sow tomatoes too late. Tomatoes seedlings, sowned after April 15, will also grow and bloom. However, the yield will be small. Summer in most regions of Russia is too short that the fruits of such plants are ripe.
- In boxes, pots or peat pots are poured prepared primer. Soil watered, smoothly align. You can pour soil with a preparation for growth and root formation, for example, a bostimulator root "Black Jack" at the rate of 25 ml / 10 liters of water. Such processing improves, speeds up the germination of plants. Such biostimulants affect the growth of the root system in the first phase, therefore, for the best absorption of phosphorus (especially at low temperatures in the greenhouses).
- Seeds are sown, slightly pressed. Sowing depth: 0.5-1 cm. Tomato seeds can be sown in two ways:
- Dot - each seed is sown separately, in a well done with a finger or a stick. This is a good method when you need to plant a few bushes of seedlings. Tomatoes are sowing into separate pots, then not to dive them. When sowing into separate pots, sow seeds are very economical, in every pot (cassette cell) a maximum of 3 seed so that the seedlings are well ventilated and did not fight for the light.
- Rows or solid seeds are rarely scattered (preferably every 1-3 cm) on the surface of the earth in the boxes. 500-1000 seeds are seeded in a box of 40 × 60 cm.
- Then the soil is moisturized from the sprayer and cover the seeds with a layer of sand, vermiculite or perlite.
Attention! After sowing, the seeds should not be covered only by peat, especially very small, as it can relatively easily covered with a crust when he dried.
- The ground before the appearance of sections should be sprayed with water from the spray. To increase the humidity level, it is recommended to cover films with films with ventilation holes so that fungal diseases do not develop.
Important! After sowing, it is impossible to dry out the substrate, since the germination is a critical moment.
- When sowing tomatoes in seedlings at home, the optimal air temperature should be ensured for the appearance of plant shoots. For tomatoes, the temperature should remain 25-27 ºC, until the seeds are sprout. At this temperature, the tomato seed can be used in 3-5 days. If it is impossible to maintain the optimal temperature for germination of seeds in the room, the germination drops. Maintaining the optimal temperature in the first period affects the speed, uniformity of germs.
The germination of tomatoes: 5-10 days.
Knowing how to care for the seedle, performing a set of events can grow strong, healthy seedlings that will give a good harvest.
Providing optimal temperature
After the appearance of germs, the air temperature should be reduced to 20-22 ° and 16 ° at night. Heat should be evenly distributed through the room. Initially, tomatoes will need heat for germination. And later - warm and light.
It is not always possible to reduce the temperature for seedlings after the appearance of germs, for example, when growing tomato seedlings at home. Due to the lower temperature and solar position, the seedlings grow more squat, strong.
When growing in a greenhouse, novice vegetables are often asked which temperature with the tomatoes seedlings. It should be borne in mind that without the heating of tomatoes in the greenhouse is difficult. Temperature at night should not fall below 16 degrees. When the seedlings are too cold, it becomes purple. This is a sign that tomatoes do not absorb phosphorus. Symptoms disappear as temperature increases.
When leaving the seedlings of young tomatoes, timely and optimal watering water temperature is very important. Spraying with a pulverizer perfectly first. When we notice, in addition to the first cotyledons, real leaves, should stop the spraying, going to the watering of the substrate itself. Tomatoes do not like wet leaves and can be infected with rot. Waming of plants can cause a black leg with seedlings of young tomatoes.
Noticing the first seedlings, all trays (pots) should be transferred to light. Any delay will make seedlings thin, white and long. Unfortunately, they cannot be shortened later.
Important! Maintaining excessively high temperatures when growing seedlings, especially at night, it causes too intense growth of the above-ground part in relation to the roots.
Tomatoam is needed warm, sunny window sill. The more the sun, the better. Therefore, there is no point in hurrying with sowing, the later sowing seeds, the longer the day day. Southed in February plants will not be highlighted enough and therefore can be stretched out.
Protection against disease
The seedlings of ground tomatoes grown even in ideal temperature and humidity conditions should be protected from bacterial and fungal diseases. The most common diseases of tomatoes seedlings are various rot.
It is important to prevent the appearance of rot, especially where it is impossible to maintain the temperature suitable for the growth of young plants.
After the deployment of the seedlings, it is worth protecting seedlings, watering them by Fungicide "Explosur Energy", "Ridomil Gold" or another drug. This is done to protect seedlings from fungal infections in case of non-compliance with the optimal temperature and humidity conditions. The PreviCur Energy preparation systemically acts in the plant, disinfects the surface of the substrate, protects seedlings from phytoofluorosis.
In heated premises, there is usually no risk of disease. High risk, especially bacterial diseases or black legs of tomatoes occurs in unheated premises.
About 10 days after sowing, the seedlings of the tomatoes from the boxes in separate pots are conducted. The picking is carried out when the plants have developed enough - the first real sheet begins to appear besides the seedlings.
Reference. Sejdoli is the first leaves with smooth edges that appear after germination. Real leaves of tomatoes with gear edges.
How to reconvert the seedlings of tomato:
- Prepare tanks for transplant (pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm).
- The soil is poured into the pots, watered, make small pits for seedlings in the ground.
- Before picking the soil in the seedlings, they are poured, gently get the seedlings with a wand and transplanted into the prepared containers. After picking, we plant seedlings deeper than they grew before. Tomatoes love when they are deeply planted, then they grow more superficial roots that will allow more water from the soil. Picking helps to get a native good seedlings.
- When diving, you need to watch the roots of the seedling well pressed to the soil. Often the soil seal around the stem, and the air remains around the roots. Such plants poorly tolerate the transplant and even dry in warm and sunny weather. Well-planted seedlings, when we pull at Seidoli, should resist, they can not be easily pulled out of the soil.
After picking, when seedlings are coming up, it is better to maintain the temperature at night at the minimum level 12 ° C. Then the plants are well sued and quickly begin to grow. After they are rooted, they can be repeatedly poured with a BLACKJAK solution with the addition of fungicides. Preview 0.15% and topxin 0.1%.
After picking one seedling in a separate pot, we will organize more space for each plant. Seedlings should not fight for light, then they will be autonous and squat, not long and thin.
After picking plants in pots or in greenhouses and greenhouses, optimal temperature values should be maintained so that the cultivation go well.
Optimal temperature parameters Piking field:
- At night - not lower than 14 ºC;
- During the day - about 22 ºC.
In addition to supporting the necessary air temperature, it is necessary to remember that after picking in very sunny days the intensity of light should be limited to the shading of the greenhouse, because with a very strong sunlight, seedlings can "burn".
Approximately 10 days after picking tomatoes, you need to arrange grown seedlings so that they do not touch each other with leaves.
It should be borne in mind that the duration of cultivation of seedlings will be different:
- On average, seedlings are growing 6-7 weeks.
- For growing in pots with a volume of 90 cm 3It takes about 5-6 weeks.
- In pots of smaller size - up to 5 weeks.
You can reduce the production of seedlings for several days, if instead of picking seeds to heat immediately into large pots.
Growing without picking
Piking can be avoided by seeding seeds in a peat pot, filled with 2/3 heights. When seedlings reach approximately 2 cm, remove the weaker from the pots and leave one strong plant. Then we get the soil in such a way as to deepen the left seedling. Thus, without a dive, which is complex and painstaking, you can get roester, healthy seedlings with an enlarged root room.
If the cultivation of seedlings of tomato without picking is carried out in pots in protected soil, they should not have direct contact with soil in the greenhouse. It should be isolated from the soil at least a film, but it is desirable that they stand on the table or shelving, without touching the earth. Then the root system does not go beyond the pot, and the extra water from the multi-pot pot can flow freely.
A fairly interesting solution is to place pots in a greenhouse on foam blocks. It isolates plants from cold earth.
Feeding after picking
7-10 days after the dive are beginning to fake tomato seedlings of fertilizer solutions. It is important to pay attention to the correct fertilizer seedlings of young tomatoes. If seedlings are grown in the soil of greenhouses and the content of nutritional elements in the soil is at an optimal level, additional fertilizers do not need.
When growing in pots, fertilizer for seedlings of young tomatoes is necessary for almost the beginning of the intensive growth of plants. It is better to start the feeder in a week after picking plants with small doses of complex fertilizers dissolved in water at each watering. Fertilizer can be carried out less often, but large doses of fertilizers. The smaller the pots, the more often the feeding should be carried out, but fewer batteries at a time.
The concentration of nutrient solutions for daily fertilizer is 10 g per 10 liters of water.
Attention! In amateurous conditions, seedlings should be fertilized carefully, be sure to small doses. Tomatoes are voracious and love fertilizer. However, then they can grow too quickly, become very old, sluggish.
Fertilizer for seedings of tomato tomatoes seedlings must contain 1.5 times more potassium than nitrogen. If the fertilizer contains 12% nitrogen, potassium should be about 18%. Fertilizer should also contain phosphorus. If you feed the plants every day, the concentration of such fertilizer in water should be 0.1-0.15%. If you hold a feeder 2-4 times in all the time of production of seedlings, then the concentration should be increased to 0.3-0.4%.
The fertilizers with a balanced composition can also be used depending on the state of the plants. Sometimes, especially when the air temperature indoors remains below 12 ° C, there are symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in the form of violet staining of residences from the bottom of the leaves.
A photo. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in seedlings
Then the content of this element in the plant should be supplemented by spraying with fertilizer with easily dismissed phosphorus, and not to bring it into the soil. Usually the cause of the absorption of phosphorus is a low soil temperature.
Often, novice vegetables are asked than to feed the seedlings of home tomato, so that there are plump. For feeding young tomatoes it is better to use natural fertilizers. For seedlings located on the windowsill in the apartment, fertilizers based on the litter of worms (without unpleasant odor).
For fertilizing seedlings of young tomatoes in a greenhouse, for example, Nasty nettle, elderberry, cow dung need to be diluted, preferably in the ratio of 1:30 (1 part of the fertilizer, 30 parts of water).
Approximately 7-10 days before the seedling seedlings in open soil begin to harde it. Tomatoes need to get used to the temperature on the street, the sun, the wind. Typically, the harden is carried out after May 15. To do this, we take the seedlings to the street, and hide at night. A few days later it can be planted.
In healthy and hardened tomatoes seedlings strong dark green leaves.
If the seedlings are overgrown
Sometimes for a number of reasons, the situation arises when the seedlings of our tomatoes have gross, what to do in that case?
- If the cooling is short-lived, then, for example, in the suburbs you can land seedlings even on May 5, under Lutrasil and film.
- In general, seedlings can stand up to the maximum of 10 days in old tanks, may even bloom that it is undesirable. If seedlings blooms, you will have to cut the macushki.
- Some vegetables in such cases put seedlings in a cool place (glazed balcony, loggia, greenhouse, veranda), where the temperature is +15 at night + 4 + 6, if there are no light seedlings, does not grow.
- Some vegetables for prolonged cooling resort to transfers of seedlings in large capacity (you can take high-cut plastic bottles with a volume of 1.5-2 liters). In this case, the growth process is not very slow down, it is slowed down for only 3 days.
Landing in the primer
When seedlings are developing, they are transplanted into the ground. Usually, the planting seedlings in the ground is carried out after May 20. The time when the seedlings depends on the region. At the time of disembarking, the last frosts must pass, the soil must warm up. Under the film you can plant seedlings before. Tomatoes cannot be planted at the same place in a row and after other plants of the Polenic family (potatoes, eggplants, peppers).
Here again it turns out that peat pots have an advantage. We just put them in a rather large hole in the ground and instress. No removal of roots, no fear damage them.
Before planting tomatoes in an open ground, you need to carefully switch the plot, choose all weeds, disperse the surface, outline the rows, dig up the wells in the size of the root koma seedlings.
Before making fertilizers, it is advisable to conduct chemical analysis of the soil. If the soil is poor, mineral fertilizers should be added.
Recommended doses of minerals for the cultivation of tomatoes are as follows:
- 100-110 kg / ha (1-1.1 kg per hundred) - nitrogen;
- 80-100 kg / ha (0.8-1 kg per hundred) - phosphorus;
- 120-150 kg / ha (1.2-1.5 kg per hundred) - potassium.
It is important that tomatoes are planted deeply, after landing, it is necessary to cut down the lowest pair of leaves so that they do not touch the earth, and to pour out.
Tomato planting scheme in open ground and greenhouses. Saplings are planted in the ranks with a distance between the plants of 35-50 cm. The optimal number of tomato seedlings per 1 m 2- 3-4 pieces.
After planting seedlings of tomatoes, it is better to fall asleep the land of mulch, such as straw. Then tomatoes are less ill.
Tomato seedlings are one of the most unpretentious among vegetable crops. It is possible to grow it on the windowsill, a warmed balcony, loggia, in a heated greenhouse. The size and timing of obtaining the future harvest depends on the quality of seedlings. A strong, chorennye, with a good root system of seedlings quickly coming up, is sick less, earlier gives a crop in much large volumes.
How to create ideal conditions for tomato seedlings?
Before proceeding to growing tomato seedlings, you need to create suitable conditions in the apartment.
- Wash windows to ensure maximum natural lighting.
- Choose windows oriented to the south, west or east.
- Put any insulation on the windowsill, you can even old newspapers.
It should be borne in mind that in winter and early spring the temperature near the window by 1-2 ° C is lower than in the room, and on the windowsill - by 3-4 ° C. If the window is zaled, then close to glass is colder at 5-8 ° C.
So that the delicate shoots of tomatoes did not experience stress, try to exclude adverse factors:
- dry air
- lack of light
- Cold window sills,
- Heat batteries,
- Cold air from open vents.
How to prepare tomato seeds to sow?
Seed preparation complex includes 3 main events: warming, disinfection and germination.
- Hold the seeds of 3 h under the lamp, maintaining the temperature of 60 ° C, at the battery or stove.
- This technique will make rid of infections inside the seed;
- Soak seeds for 10-12 hours in pharmacy peroxide hydrogen, and then rinse in running water.
- The easiest way is to soak in a solution of manganese (10 g per 1 liter of water) for 20 minutes. However, such soaking kills only an infection on the surface of the seed.
- Increase the resistance to infection can be wigled in solutions of micro- and macroelements or daily chain ashes (2 matches per 1 liter of water, withstand 3 hours);
If you are not sure of the quality of seeds or want to speed up the germination process, seeds should be germinated in a wet cloth or tissue in the usual way.
What is the container to plant tomatoes seedlings?
A special role in the cultivation of young tomato plants belongs to the preparation of the soil and selection of tanks.
- For seedlings, you can use ready-made pots, cassettes, drawers.
- Their value depends on whether they will grow seedlings with or without picking, as well as the duration of cultivation.
In any case, all the containers need pre-disinfection. Capacities can be simply treated with a solution of manganese.
How to prepare the soil for tomatoes seedlings?
Whether it is purchased, or prepared independently, the soil needs to be disinfected. The disinfection of the soil for seedlings is carried out by any known and affordable ways.
- The simplest reception can be a multiple freezing of the soil and its thawing.
- In no case cannot be sterilized by the nutrient soil mixture on the stove or in the oven, since the organic substances will be fused, and the obtained soil is not suitable for the distortion of strong seedlings.
- The thermal disinfection of the soil can be carried out only by steaming or straitting with hot heatmanship.
The key to healthy soil without harmful pathogens is high-quality and proven ingredients for ramparts.
Use riding sour or nine neutral peat and nutrient ground gas station with a complex of necessary minerals. Then the seedlings will be healthy, and you will save strength and energy.
It should be borne in mind that the soil for tomato seedlings should be light, loose, nutritious, well holding moisture and nonclicat.
- Most often used turf or garden ground, humid and sand in proportions 1: 2: 1.
- On the bucket of such a mixture, 200 g of ashes, 60 g of superphosphate 20 g of potassium sulfate are added.
Adding a peat improves the structure of the soil, increases the observing of plants, reduces the damage to pathogenic organisms.
Especially peat is effective in a complex with other orgunic and mineral fertilizers
Photo: Horse and nylon peat for seedlings and plants from the buoy plant fertilizer
When to plant tomatoes on seedlings?
It is very important to correctly determine the timing of the sowing and the facility of the plant. If you make a mistake here, you can get either overgrowing or underdeveloped seedlings. Incorrectly selected seeding time is the most common error when obtaining a strong seedlings.
⇒ The longer growing period, the greater the power area should be.
- Sowing term is determined depending on the timing of landing on the beds or a greenhouse in accordance with the climatic region.
- The later you are planning to relocate young tomato plants at a permanent place, the more later it should be seeded in the boxes.
- In this case, your own observations will be very important during a number of country seasons.
If a tomato landing is planned to a greenhouse or a bed on June 5-5, it is necessary to carry out sevenchers not earlier than 15-20 March, while taking into account the duration of the main Seedlings development periods Tomato:
- 7-10 days - on the emergence of shoots;
- about a week for passing stress after dive,
- 45-50 days for the period sewn-beginning of flowering.
With an earlier or later disembarking, it is required to adjust the sowing date in one direction or the other.
In the conditions of the Khabarovsk region, sowing tomatoes are carried out in several times:
- Estimal varieties sowed 10 - 15 March,
- The secondary and late - in the period of March 20 - April 10.
How to sow seeds of tomatoes to seedlings?
If it is planned to grow with picking, then they sow in the boxes or another container at least 10 cm high. The tanks are filled in advance to the soil for the gradual sedimentation. Otherwise, the seeds may later be at himself much smaller, which can cause the appearance of shoots with seed shells (caps). You will have to additionally make it possible to make shooters from pipettes to drop them.
Sowing is carried out in 2 ways:
- On well spilled soil, make a shallow (up to 2 cm) a groove after 3-4 cm, decompose seeds in them with sealing;
- Earth in the tank does not shine to the edges, align, decompose the seeds by rows and fall asleep by 1.5-2 cm.
Warm watering can be carried out both before and after sowing. Then you should cover the containers with seeds or glass and put into a warm place.
Do not forget to sign boxes or arrange labels with signed varieties! Otherwise, later you can easily get confused.
What temperature is needed for tomatoes seedlings?
- For the timely appearance of germs, a temperature is required 22-25 ° C.
- When the first sprouts appear to enhance the growth of the tank roots, it is installed on the windowsill and reduce the temperature to 12-15 ° C for 4-7 days (you can open the window).
- When young plants are fixed enough, set the temperature of 20-25 ° C on sunny days, 18-20 ° C into cloudy.
- Night temperatures are kept at 10-12 ° C.
This place can be found at the access to the balcony or near the entrance door. Responsive daches fit for this purpose even the lower shelf in the refrigerator. Highel temperature leads to the stretching of seedlings, it is more infected with a black leg. To maintain the necessary humidity, the room is placed on the room with water dishes.
How much light need tomatoes seedlings?
- For good growth, seedlings need lighting 12-14 hours per day.
- With early sowing, it is necessary to make a shower of 2-3 hours in the morning and in the evening.
- By additional lighting up to 16-18 hours per day, it is possible to accelerate the development of seedlings during the disadvantage.
For artificial lighting, you can use special phytolambamps to make seedlings or ordinary tubular daylight lights. Can help out conventional electrical lamps. On 1 m² of the area there will be such a light bulb with a capacity of 100-150 W. Increase the seedlings of the seedlings help various foil screens or mirrors.
How to peer tomato seedlings?
Until now, there are disputes on this issue. There are different points of view. The main topic in these disputes is to crush the main root or not?
- Piking supporters argue that it must be done necessarily by shortening the root rod by 1/3, thereby causing the appearance of new side roots, which will be located in the upper fertile soil layer.
- Their opponents argue the opposite - it is impossible to shorten the main root in any way, it will harm the plant. They grow seedlings by transshipment.
Nevertheless, each acts as you used or as convenient.
How to grow tomatoes without dive?
Now many gardeners grow seedlings in pots or cassettes, i.e. In separate containers, without dive. The most important thing in this case is the right selection of capacity.
- The longer the seedlings are growing, the more there should be a pot volume.
- With the duration of growing seedlings in 60 days, it is recommended to use a pot with a diameter of at least 15 cm (0.8-1 l).
How to grow tomatoes with pickup?
Growing the seedlings of tomatoes with pickup, you can immediately get rid of patients and weak seedlings.
It has been established that in the conditions of the middle strip of Russia, it is necessary to grow seedlings with picking. The fact is that the soil in this climate is warmed very slowly, and deeply located roots cannot provide full nutrition. Only side roots will be able to help out. The picking is carried out in order to provide plants with a sufficient number of soil and air for the normal development of seedlings.
- Bringing to the dive should be better in cloudy weather when forming the 1st real leaflet.
- Before the start of picking seedlings is good.
- New pots fill in the same soil as drawers before dive.
- In well-moisthed soil, carefully, hiding a knife or blade, transplant seedlings, pouring the main root to third.
- If the roots are too long, they should be put on a ring, pour out the ground, enhance the ground around the fingers and pour.
- A seedman should be shuffled into a new pot to the most seedy leaves. This will contribute to the additional growth of the roots on the stem.
- Pots do not need to fill to the edges to gradually plug the earth as plants grow.
For the best survival of the plant, it is necessary to hold under moderately warm temperatures:
- For 3-4 days, 20-22 ° W on the day and 14 ° at night. For this period it is better to put pots in a dark place.
- Next, the temperature is set at 23-25 ° C during the day and 18-20 ° at night.
How to dive tomatoes in a greenhouse?
Picking can be carried out not only in the container of large volumes, but also in insulated greenhouses or greenhouses, creating the necessary conditions. The distance between the plants should be at least 8-10 cm. When transplanting seedlings in sunny weather, they can be covered with any light covering material.
Picking of tomatoes by transshipment method
Many gardeners use the method of transshipment, i.e. They translate several times (transplanted with a large lore land) seedlings in increasingly voluminous containers. It is believed that such a method is less traumatura for the root system, contributes to the ambient survival of such plants.
How to water the seedlings of tomatoes?
Seedlings are better to water by spraying, maintaining the upper layer of the soil in a slightly moistened state.
- Watering water can be used for irrigation only after settling in the open dishes, so far chlorine.
- Very good for watering thawed water from snow or obtained after the refrigerator defrosting.
- The water temperature is not lower than 20 ° C for 3-4 days.
The resulting, well-catching seedlings must be poured only when dried up the upper soil layer and when the lower leaves appeared slightly.
- If we overdo it with watering, you can get ramped plants with juicy, easily breaking stem, large leaves, but a weak root system.
- After each 2-3rd irrigation, the soil should be undermined by piercing it with a sharp twist or wire.
What to feed the seedlings of tomatoes?
The need for additional nutrition should indicate the plants themselves. It can be a growing growing, pale color. Usually begin to feed the plants as soon as they come in after dive. Use any fertilizer.
- Sophisticated mineral fertilizers (nitroposk, ammonophoska): dissolve 5 g in 1 liter of water.
- It is convenient to use "solutionin" or "Kemira": 2 g per similar volume of water.
- Good results gives the use of avian water diluted with water 1: 15-20, or a cowboy - 1:10.
- Prepare the infusion of wood ash (half a cup of insist in 1 liters of water) necessary to replenish the lack of phosphorus, potassium and trace elements in organic fertilizers.
Before and after the feeding, watering with clean water to prevent burns. Usually one glass of the solution is sufficient for watering 8-10 only the drilled plants, with more adult plants - for 4.
The second feeder is carried out in the presence of 6 of these leaves (not counting seedly). With the normal development of plants, 3 feeding is usually sufficient.
- To prevent the dispensing of buds, seedlings can be seeded with a boric acid solution: 2 g per 10 liters of water.
- Try not to abuse nitric fertilizers, it can cause premature stretching of plants.
How to tempt the seedlings of tomatoes?
In cases where the tempered seeds were sown, the seedlings grown of them usually do not need hardening additionally. If the seeds did not heard, then it is necessary to spend with a seedler.
- If the window is installed outside the window (about 10 ° C), the seedlings can be taken to a balcony or a veranda from 11 to 16 hours, and after 3-4 days and to the street (fully open the windows and frames).
- In the absence of a threat to frosts, seedlings can not be closed at night.
- The ideal option will be the placement of pots with a seedler in a warmed seafood.
Well tempered seedlings has a purple stalk coloring. It can be planted first.
When to plant seedlings in the ground?
The finished seedlings of Tomatoes need to have by the end of the last spring frosts.
- It is planted in the presence of plants 18-28 cm 7-8 of the present leaves and buds of the first flower brush.
- The seedlings of the early varieties of the first time of sowing by this time should be 9-10 leaves and single fruits up to 2 cm.
- Sit ready to seedlings when the threat of frosts is passed.
What if the tomato seedlings stretched out?
To avoid pulling, it is necessary to observe the light, aqueous and temperature mode.
- Limit excess growth will help reduce temperature and more rare watering.
- When closed leaves, seedlings are placed freely, in supporting light access to all plants.
How to get rid of the black leg in the seedlings of tomatoes?
In order to prevent the damage to the black leg will help:
- disinfection of soil and seeding tanks;
- compliance with optimal conditions;
- disinfection of seeds;
- Discarding the soil surface ash;
- Before planting plants to handle immunocytophite.
When the disease appears, the patients of the plant should be immediately removed. After drying, shed soil with a solution of potassium mangartage - 2 g on 2 liters of water. This quantity is enough for disinfection of 1 m² of area. With a weak degree of lesion, sick plants should be added fresh land or sand to form a new root system.
5 common errors in the cultivation of tomatoes seedlings
one. Too early sowing. Tomatoes are seeded 50-60 days before transplanting to a soil or greenhouse.
2. Excessive processing of seeds. This can lead to a reduced germination.
3. Outflowed sowing slowing down the process of germination. It is necessary to sow 1.5 cm. The soil in the box in front of the sowing is rich enough, wait for the moisture absorbing, decompose the seeds and pour a moderately damp soil.
four. Strong delay in the appearance of shoots . Possible cause - a box with sown seeds immediately put on the windowsill, without providing the desired temperature to germinate seeds.
five. Incorrectly selected primer . Shop soil usually consists of a clean peat with high acidity.
Galina Kuzmitskaya, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Breeder
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Sowing seeds, the cultivation of tomatoes seedlings, root celery, Bulgarian pepper, eggplant - the first concerns of the gardeners and dachensons of the new season. From correctly selected varieties, time and conditions of planting seeds, good and skillful care depends on the quality of grown seedlings. And high-quality seedlings, in turn, is a prerequisite for obtaining a good harvest. This article is intended to assist all those wishing to grow good, strong seedlings.
Cultivation of tomato seedlings
List of necessary steps:
- Determination of seed landing time.
- Preparation of seeds to sowing.
- Preparation of soil for seedlings.
- Selection of a suitable seedling capacity.
- Sowing tomato seeds.
- Picking of tomatoes seedlings.
- Growing the seedlings of tomatoes after picking-care.
Step 1. Timing seed seeds for tomato seedlings
For seedlings in open soil, the timing of seeds of tall tomatoes, the same as for greenhouses. For early grades, seeding time - until the first day of April.
Time sowing seeds to seedlings are determined, based on landing deadlines, given that its age should be about 60-70 days. If seedling is preparing for the greenhouse and it is planned to be planted in the first decade of May, then it is necessary to sow in late February-early March.
|Sort||Ripening time, days|
|Estimated||50 - 60|
|Ored air||70 - 95.|
|LateVest||115 - 120.|
Terms of sowing and landing seedlings for permanent place
|Type of agriculture||Sowing time or landing|
|Dates of sowing||February 15 - March 10|
|Dates of landing||April 20 - May 15|
|Type of agriculture||Sowing time or landing|
|Dates of sowing||March 1 - March 20|
|Dates of landing||May 15 - June 10|
|Type of agriculture||Sowing time or landing|
|Dates of sowing||March 15 - March 25|
|Dates of landing||April 10 - June 12|
The success of growing seedlings in February and March directly depends on the illumination. During this period, without playing fluorescent or LED lamps, the plants are pulled and sick. The lack of light is constrained by all phases of plant development, including the future fruit. The lights of the backlight are located above the seedliness at an altitude of 5-7 cm.
Nodules for memory. It should be borne in mind that sowned in a later date, but the centerpiece, strong seedlings will give an earlier weighty harvest than the overgrown, pale and stretched.
Step 2. Preparation of tomato seeds for sowing
The second step of growing tomato seedlings at home is the preparation of seeds, discussed in detail here. Therefore, it remains only to supplement the material outlined there.
Preparation includes calibration, disinfection and germination
|Name of solution||Time disinfection||Composition|
|Chloromexide pharmacy||30 minutes||what is there without dilution|
|Diamond Greens (Zelenka)||20-30 minutes||1-2 ml (1 teaspoon) per 100 ml of water|
|Aloe||day||50 ml of juice per 100 ml|
|Garlic||day||2-3 zuben wrapped on 100 ml of water|
Chlorgexed Pharmacy is the most effective means of disinfection. It not only in a short time 100% purifies the surface of the seeds from infection, but also has a positive effect on the state of seedlings.
Tomato seeds begin to germinate on the 3-5th day. There are no unknown seeds to sow - even if they go out, the plants grew out of them will be weak and painful.
Step 3. Preparation of soil for sowing seeds to seedlings of tomatoes
The third step of growing tomato seedlings at home is the preparation of the soil, discussed in detail here.
Step 4. Choosing a suitable container for seedlings
- For seedlings, you can use ready-made pots, cassettes, boxes, containers;
- Their value depends on the method of growing tomato seedlings - with or without picking, as well as on the number of seeds and the duration of cultivation.
It is advisable to displaced the capacitance, it is possible to simply be treated with a solution of manganese.
If it is planned to use a method for growing seedlings of tomatoes with picking, then when choosing a container, two circumstances take into account. First, the tanks will have to constantly move from one place to another, rotate. Secondly, the time of growth from shoots to the dive is small - 10-20 days and the plant does not require a lot of soil.
Therefore, the tanks may not be deep, not large, light, but durable. Very comfortable and completely free containers made from fast cooking noodles.
A completely different requirements for tanks in the cultivation of seedlings of tomatoes without dive. They must be deep 15-20 cm. It can be cups and similar to them, where one (rare two) plants are placed. Or boxes, boxes, containers that ensure the distance between plants at least 10 cm. When using a shared box, it is desirable to divide the rows of plants by partitions to prevent the releasing roots.
Step 5. Sowing Tomato Seed
With the method of growing seedlings of tomatoes with picking.
On the day of sowing, a pre-prepared soil is falling asleep (if it is dry, then slightly moistened) in the selected container, they are moving, slightly seal. If the seeds are a bit, make the grooves in a depth of 1 cm after 3-4 cm. The grooves are watered with warm (35-40 0C) a solution of a growth regulator, for example "Bud". Seeds are sowing into the groove at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other and sprinkled with soil mixture, do not water from above.
If there are many seeds, then act differently. The grooves do not make, and germinated seeds simply lay on the surface of the soil and slightly sprayed with the same growth regulator or simply water from the sprayer. Then pumped with a soil of a layer thickness of 1 cm and watered from the sprayer.
Such thickened sowing is the necessary measure. Otherwise, there will be many more tanks and time for planting seeds. It is necessary to put up with the fact that the method inevitably becomes difficult to complicate the dive.
The main advantage of growing tomato seedlings without dive is time savings. This is especially important as the advantage in the cultivation of a large number of seedlings. In addition, without picking, the main rod root is obtained well developed-disappears the need for frequent watering of adult plants.
Planting tanks are filled with moisturized ground for 1/3 of height, small 10 mm of recess are made in the ground, gentle sprouts are placed in them and the soil is sinking slightly. You can slide a little from the spacing. As the plants grow, as necessary, the soil is sweeping in the container.
Capacities with seed seeds are closed with covers if they are included, or placed in plastic bags, or covered with polyethylene film, put in warm (22-25 0C) bright place. After 3-4 days (sometimes after 2) sections appear.
Step 6. Picking of tomatoes seedlings
Recently, the authors of one popular site called in me the doubts such a phrase: "... many confused picking with a transfer ...". I also believed - this is the same. I had to dig in the literature.
Picking (FRO PIQUET = Cole, peg) - transplant (often with the help of a kolyka) of young vegetable, fruit, ornamental ... plants to improve their growth conditions.
Pinzing (from him. pinzieren = remove end) or Picker , topping Tips - removal of the upper part of the young escape from the plant (also - the root during the dive). The method aims to cause the growth of the growth of some shoots and accelerate the growth of others.
Away doubts, everything became clear - confused picking with a pinch.
15-20 days after the appearance of plant sections in the phase of one real sheet, it is pyric in separate containers, for example, in 100 gram cups. In order not to be formed water, there are holes in the bottoms. Plants are taken strong and healthy with well-developed roots.
The nodules for memory. To get a plant from the cup to the transplant, without damaging the roots, it is enough before planting, put on its bottom of the cross-cross-line 2 strips from polyethylene. End strips should hang out outside.
Plants transplant carefully, so as not to damage the seedy leaves that play an important role in the life of plants. Experience shows that plants that have been damaged at least one seedlist during transplantation, much lags behind in development.
Before picking the soil in advance - per day they watered well, so that it is wet to the landing, and heat up to 20 0S. Picirovka need to be carried out quickly, then the seedlings will easily come down.
Everything should be at hand: Capacities filled with wet soil, polished in advance seedlings and pegs, with which they choose and plant seedlings. Capacities are filled with soil on ⅓ volume. This method of planting allows you to plug the soil under the plants 2-3-3 times, thereby stimulating the formation of additional roots.
Capture or not to quench the rod root - each decides itself on the basis of its preferences. For myself, we have long decided this issue - not to quote. For 5 years now, we have been successfully growing tomatoes without watering that in the OG, which is in the greenhouse.
- The core root cap will only lead to an increase in the roots mass in the surface layer of the soil. Such a root system will require continuous polishers. At the same time, plants with a preserved rod root are perfectly producing moisture from the deep layers of the soil and are able to grow almost without irrigation.
- Plants with a stored rod root at the time of landing on a permanent place tightly, with a good tour and a powerful root system.
- make a peg in the soil of the tank (with sufficiently moist soil, the deepening will retain the form well, with insufficient - its walls will crumble);
- They dig a seeder with the help of a kolyka, taking it for the stem below the leaves with large and index fingers of the left hand;
- Lower the seeding into the prepared recess on such a depth so that the seedy leaves are 0.4-0.6 cm above the soil surface;
- sweatsets, supporting it with his left hand, carefully slumbering the soil until the recess will be filled;
- align and compact the surface of the soil around the stem and the edge of the tank;
- watered a planted seeder under the root, trying not to wet the leaves, warm water;
- Put the place of irrigation of dry soil when water is absorbed.
Seedlings for the 2nd day are cleaned into a dark and cool place. Since tomatoes grow at night, then during this time they are good. Then rearranged to light, desirable treatment with epinoma.
It is necessary to monitor the temperature during the week to be 4-5 0With lower than before dive. In the early period of growing seedlings, the backlight is used.
Step 7. Growing the seedlings of tomatoes after dive. Care.
After picking seedlings for 3 days, the temperature is maintained during the day 20-22 0S, and at night 16-18 0C. As soon as seedlings come true, the temperature is reduced during the day to 18-20 0With, at night to 15-16 0FROM.
Watering Tomato seedlings
Water seedlings 1 time per week with warm water (22 0C), trying well to moisten the soil. To the next watering of the soil should dry a little, it is necessary to ensure that there are no long breaks in irrigation.
The correct irrigation plays a huge role. Plants grown with moderate watering are considered viable.
Plants need to be watered very carefully, trying not to allow both the upper soil layer and excessive humidity.
In very wet soil, the plants suffocate from the lack of oxygen, they can start to heat the roots of seedlings.
Nodules for memory. It is impossible to water seedlings with cold water from under the tap. Water should well stand out and its temperature should not be below 22 0FROM.
12 days after the dive, the seedlings are fed: 1 ton of nitroposki or nitroamofosk are taken on 10 liters of water. Consumption of 0.5 glasses on the plant.
Feed the seedlings depending on the state of the plants. If they are poorly growing, have a pale or bluish color, plants are watered, for example, an infusion of ash (2 tbsp. Spoons per 1 liter of water) or cow's milk (1 cup of milk on 1 liter of water). Or a non-cornery feeder is carried out with a liquid soluble fertilizer (1 g of fertilizer per 1 liter of water), spraying seedlings from the sprayer so that the solution gets on the bottom of the sheet.
Grown plants as the roots of the Earth's Koma are cropped one or twice in the capacity of larger, for example, in plastic glasses 0.5-0.75 liters. The first transshipment is carried out in 22-25 days. Before transshipment, seedlings do not watered to keep the earth com. At the bottom of such a glass, the soil is poured on 1-2 cm, placed in it, extracted from a small cup, a tomature with an earthen room and shove the ground to ⅓ glass. As the seedlings of seedlings are growing and seedlings are being added several times the soil. Thus, providing the appearance of additional roots in the plant.
Why do you need, growing tomato seedlings at home, first dive seedlings into small cups, and then transfer to big?
First, each transplant holds back growth and seedlings are not pulled out.
Secondly, in small cups of plants with regular irrigation develop a good root system, since water in such cups is not delayed and air access is larger. If the seedlings are seeded immediately into large cups, it will be difficult to regulate watering and water will begin to stagnate. With excessive moisture, there is a lack of air and the root system slows down growth, which, in turn, adversely affects the development of seedlings - it is pulled out.
15 days after the transplantation to large glasses, seedlings again feed:
- on 10 liters of water 1 tbsp. a spoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, stir well and pour at the rate of 1 cup on 1 plant;
- After another 15 days in 10 liters of water, dissolve 1 tbsp. A spoonful of nitroposki and pour 1 cup on the plant.
Charging seedlings Tomatov
Seedlings must be ordered. It is extremely important because it falls into the rigid conditions of open soil.
When the outdoor temperature reaches 10 0 With seedlings, they take out an open air - to the balcony, the veranda, porch. First, for 1-2 hours, then gradually increasing this time and escaping the seedlings both to reduced temperatures at night and to hot sunny days.
Well hardened seedlings "Cornstock" and has a blue-purple shade.
10-12 days before landing in open ground, it is reduced by watering, not allowing seedlings.
If there is a seedlings to be transported, then in 2-3 days it should be terminated at all. Then slightly pushing the seedlings would take better way.
Nodules for memory. Tomatoes are long-day plants, they are highlighted 10-12 hours a day.
A good seedling of tomatoes aged 50-60 days should have 7-9 leaves.
Diseases of tomato seedlings
Sometimes the seedlings grown in room conditions occurs to thinning the lower part of the stem, it worms black and the plant dies. This disease is a black leg - one of the most dangerous and insidious, which can be destroyed in just a few days all seedlings!
Causes of the disease:
- infected soil;
- Porn thickening - due to the shortage of light seedlings stretches, weakens;
- excessive soil moisture;
- watering cold water;
- Sharp fluctuations in the room temperature.
Methods of struggle:
- obligatory before sowing disinfection of the soil (steaming, boiling water spraying, phytoosporin treatment);
- seed treatment;
- watering water temperature;
- Sleeping or picking seedlings.
As soon as the disease becomes a manifestation (seedlings begin to fall), damaged plants should be removed along with a lore earth. And the remaining seedlings to pour a phytosporin solution to the root or 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Mold at seedling.
When the mold mushrooms appear on the surface of the soil, it is necessary to gently remove the top layer with mold from the rivers, shed a phytosporin solution and to climb the soil with calcined chilled river sand or mixture it with ashes (1: 1).
Prevention - soil disinfection.
To protect seedlings from diseases and insect-parasites, it is possible to make plants with harmless fungicide of home cooking.
On 1 l warm boiled water 5 tablets aspirin and 2 tbsp. Ground cinnamon. After careful stirring, it was insisted on 1 day, strain and handle the spline with a spade.
Problems of growing tomato seedlings
Grow the seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants without errors and problems at any stage of its development is not always obtained. Basically, this stretching seedlings, the leaves are withering, seedlings stops in growth, lack of nutrients in the soil, pests.
Tomato seedlings stretched out
Tomato seedlings are usually drawn.
Often the reason in the lack of light to avoid this, it is necessary:
- Place them on the windowsill southern windows, not forgetting to diane the seedlings with very bright light;
- Equipped with fluorescent or LED lamps if windows are focused on other sides of the world. Shoots are desirable to highlight around the clock until they appear on the pair of real leaves. In the future, the backlight is included in the morning and in the evening for 3-4 hours;
- Eliminate landing thickens. Ship out, and not to pull out the root sprouts with underdeveloped seedlings.
- It is possible to slow the growth of seedlings by adding under the roots of fresh soil or crushed humid. Before that, it is necessary to braid with a toothpick soil between shoots. Plants will start increasing additional roots. Growth will slow down. An excellent regulator of the growth of seedlings is a decrease in temperature. For tomatoes seedlings, the temperature should not be above 15 0C, and at night you can downgrade to 11 0C, not lower. It is enough 4-5 days to withstand seedlings at such a temperature to strengthen the stepper knee.
- When picking, the bottom of the stalk of the stretched plants is placed in a cup with a spiral. The plant looks like roester, the root system develops better.
After picking, the seedlings are not closely. As soon as the tips of the leaves begin to touch, the containers with the seedle move away from each other.
Tomato seedlings still stretched
20-25 days before the seedling seedlings at a permanent place to cut the stem at the level of 5-6 sheets. Cut parts of stems put in a jar with water. Soon they will begin to grow root. When they will grow by 1-1.5 cm, plants transplant into plastic cups filled with soil.
On the remaining circumcised parts of the stems, stepsok will soon begin to appear from the sinuses of the lower leaves. When they grow to approximately 5 cm, the lower steps are removed, leave 2 upper. Gradually, steps are developing into real stems.
Tomato seedlings stretched and has a pale green color
In this case, give root feeding (1 tbsp. A spoon of urea without a slide on 10 liters of water). Watering on wet soil at the calculation of the half-table of the solution for each plant. After that, seedlings are cleaned by 5-6 days in a cool place, without watering, where the temperature of 8-10 is maintained around the clock 0C. Transfer seedlings to normal conditions when it stops growing, leaflets will turn green.
Tomato seedling ceases to grow
There may be several reasons:
1. The temperature of the soil in the tank below the ambient temperature.
Heat-loving plants are very sensitive to cold soil. The leaves evaporate moisture, and the roots in cold soil do not work - cease to feed the plants.
Solution to the problem:
The temperature of the soil in the first month from the appearance of shoots should not be descended below 15-17 0With at night, and during the day being not lower than 20-22 0FROM.
2. Watering with cold water
Watering with cold water acts on the growth of seedlings in the same way as low temperature of the soil - the roots stop feeding the plants. The blue-red leaves of tomato seedlings signals that the roots are cold and they cannot feed the plants with phosphorus.
Seedlings at any stage of development should be watering with warm water.
3. When picking damaged roots.
In this case, it is necessary to shed seedlings to Kornvin, following the instructions in the instructions.
4. The tank of small and the plant constantly lacks either moisture, no food.
Solution to the problem:
Turning to the container of larger size and raising the fertile land with the addition of a well-stop mixture.
Tomato seedlings turn yellow, fades
1. Love bright seedlings lighting.
It is enough to transfer the seedlings into the shady space or at nozzled hours to shade it with a thin covering material or tulle.
2. Lack of nutritional elements
Due to lack of nitrogen, the leaves become pale first, then yellow-green. The surest sign is the lack of green residents on them. On the lower leaves, the yellowness is more pronounced. Falker of plants ammonia or potash society quickly eliminates nitrogen fasting. The lack of potassium leads to dehydration of foliage, the young leaves begin to coaches and twist into the tube, and the old are yellow and dry around the edges.
Fill the disadvantage will help feeding with potashly nitrogen (in its composition there are nitrogen). The sprinkler of the soil ash is well helped, besides, this protection of the plant from the black leg and root rot.
The lack of iron (this element is directly involved in chlorophyll synthesis) causes chlorosis of plants (whitewashing leaves) grown in a limited space - cups, pots and other similar tanks.
The reason for the appearance of chlorosis may be too dense soil or alkaline soil reaction. Latching soil occurs when watering with water straight from under the tap. In such cases, even if iron in the soil is sufficient, it is not absorbed, because it is in an inaccessible form for plants. Iron deficiency is primarily observed on young leaves, and then spreads through the entire plant.
It is possible to distinguish the lack of iron from nitrogen fasting in the presence of green vein on a sheet.
Determine whether it is possible to determine if chlorosis seedlings can be as follows. Wash your cotton wand with a solution of iron and across the sheet spend a line along the yellow area. If after three hours this line has discovered, it is necessary to carry out an extraximalous feeding of iron preparations. And it is necessary to determine the reason for the impossibility of getting iron through the root.
To eliminate iron deficiency, the seedlings are sprayed with 0.1% solution of iron chelate (ferrovite). Helps an extraordinary feeder with a 1% solution of iron vapor, but the result will be slower.
Another reason for the appearance of chlorosis is 24-hour illumination of seedlings . Light day for tomato seedlings should not exceed 16 hours.
With the lack of phosphorus, the stem and leaves, especially from the bottom side acquire a purple shade.
Phosphorus, even if it is in sufficiency in the soil, very poorly absorbed by roots, if the soil is cold. It is necessary to insulate the windowsills or rearrange the seedlings in more comfortable conditions, where the soil temperature will be higher than 12 0C. If this does not help, then make seedlings for feeding with any liquid fertilizers in which phosphorus prevails.
3. Overwaying soil.
The roots of plants in the overwhelmed soil suffocate, experiencing a lack of oxygen, poorly absorb nutrients. Plants are pulled and weakening.
4. Bacteria or mushrooms.
The cause of wilting can be bacteria or mushrooms. For example, the root rot is very quickly distributed by the vessels of the entire plant. In such cases, biological or chemical fungicides must be applied. It is better, of course, to dwell on biological, so that they do not violate the natural process of plant development, often the nutrient elements are also contained in such preparations.
So that seedlings got better
For a better survival of seedlings for 2-3 days before landing on a permanent place, 2-3 lower lines are cut. This allows for better illumination and good ventilation, thereby excluding the possibility of diseases. The leaves are cut, leaving the hemp with a length of 1.5-2 cm, which then dried and disappear, without damaging the stem.
To preserve flower strings on the first brush 4-5 days before the seedling landing for a permanent place is sprayed with a solution of boric acid (1 g per 1 liter of water). Conduct such a procedure in the morning in cloudy weather, because Burns may appear in the sunny on the leaves.
High-quality seedlings - a guarantee of a good crop. How to sow the seeds of tomatoes, grow healthy seedlings and sip them? Read about it in our article.
By buying tomato seedlings, you never know for sure how high-quality it is and is ready for disembarking into an open ground. The fact is that the magnificent green mass does not mean at all that the plants will grow strong and healthy.
And another thing is to raise tomatoes seedlings on their own. So you will know exactly what variety will settle in your garden, when seedling will be ready for landing in the open ground and how soon wait for the harvest.
Step 1. Decide with the time of sowing tomato seeds
Time sowing tomatoes to seedlings depends on what kind of grade you are going to grow. By purchasing a sachet seeds, pay attention to the time of maturation of tomatoes (the period from the appearance of shoots to harvesting). Tomato varieties in maturation timing can be divided into three groups: Estimated , Ored air и Late flight.
|Ored air||110-120 days|
|LateVest||up to 140 days|
If you know which group the variety of tomatoes belongs to your choice, you can easily calculate time sowing. For example, to get the first tomatoes of the early grade, say, by July 15, you need to sow seeds about 100 days before. To this period, 4-7 days should also be added to the emergence of shoots and 3-5 days to adapt seedlings after its transplantation to open ground. Thus, it turns out that sowing tomatoes should be around March 26.
Typically, seed manufacturers indicate the packaging when it is precisely worth so or another variety. So, if you are not sure that the situation is correctly calculated, you can always refer to the recommendations of specialists.
Choosing tomato seeds, be sure to pay attention to the date of their release. The best germination will have seeds produced no more than 2 years ago.
Timing of seeds of tomatoes for different regions
|Culture||South and North Caucasian pho||Belarus, Volga FO||Central and Northwest FO||Ural Fo||Siberian and Far Eastern FO||Time from sowing to shoots (days)|
|Tomato for greenhouses||3rd decade of January||1st decade of March||2nd decade of March||3rd decade of March||3rd decade of March||7-8|
|Tomato for open soil||1st decade of February||2nd decade of March||3rd decade of March||1st decade of April||1st decade of April||7-8|
Step 2. Prepare seeds to sowing
What kind of tomato seeds you are going to sow - collected from their garden or purchased in the store - they need them Disinfect To destroy the pathogens of diseases. To do this, wrap the seeds in the gauze and lower the manganese in a dark pink solution for 20-30 minutes (2.5 g per 1 tsp. Water). Then rinse the seeds under running water and dry a little.
After disinfecting the seeds of tomatoes is recommended Greater - This will speed up the process of seedlings. Take a paper napkin, moisten it with water and fold in half. On one end of the napkin, put the treated seeds of tomatoes, and then cover them with another end.
It is most convenient to put a napkin with seeds on a saucer or a small plastic plate. Place the saucer in the package and put in a warm place (for example, near the battery). Do not forget to constantly moist the napkin, so that the seeds do not swam on it.
Tomato seeds begin to germinate on the 3-5th day. All the seeds crossed by this time will reflect for sowing. There are no unknown seeds to sow - even if they go out, the plants grew out of them will be weak and painful.
Step 3. Prepare the soil for seedlings
The soil for sowing seeds of tomatoes can be purchased in the horticultural store. Any universal soil is suitable for growing vegetables seedlings.
Such a mixture can be "diluted" of garden earth. But keep in mind that the soil brought from the street needs to be preprocessing. Make it in the room for 3-5 days, so that it will warm up to sit in the seed. Next, for disinfection, it is good to span the ground with a pink solution of manganese and let it stand for another 1-2 days. After that, mix the purchased substrate from the garden land in equal shares and fill in them containers for seedlings.
Step 4. Select suitable seedlings.
Survey the seeds of tomatoes can be in seedlings or separate containers. Today in the store you can find boxes for seedlings for every taste and wallet. As for single containers, plastic cups will be the most practical option.
Seeding seeds in the capacity of each species differs only by the fact that seedlings from a large container, when they reach a certain size, should be divened, and the sprouts from the cups can be transplanted immediately into open soil.
Step 5. Pose Tomato Seeds
In separate pots
Take the plastic cups and do drainage holes in their bottom. Then pour drainage to the bottom of the tanks. It can be clay, small pebbles or eggshell. Fill the cups of the soil and span with warm water.
Make in the ground shallow wells (1-2 cm) and drink 2-3 seed of tomatoes in them. This is done in the case, if not all seeds will germinate.
Gently spray sowing from the spray gun. And cover the tank themselves and put in a warm place.
IMPORTANT! After sowing seeds until the moment until the tomato shoots are fixed, water them only from the spray gun. If we pour crops with running water, the seeds will go deep into the ground and may not climb. And if we hide the weak filamental shoots from the watering can, they "polyut".
In common capacity
Tomato seed containers Choose not too large. It is enough that plants of one variety fit in them - it will be more convenient to navigate in seedlings.
Fill the earth's tank and span it well. At a distance of 4 cm come from each other several rows. In them every 2nd decompose the seeds of tomatoes.
Do not lay out the tomato seeds too close to each other. Thickened crops are poorly ventilated, which can lead to the emergence of the "black leg".
A pencil or a special stick carefully press the seeds into the soil to a depth of about 1 cm. Then put them off their land. There are no need to water sowing tomatoes.
Cover the containers with a film or a special lid if such was included. Put the capacity closer to the battery until the first searches appear. This usually occurs after 4-7 days. As soon as this happens, transfer the container into a bright place with a temperature not exceeding 18 ° C.
Remember that for good growth, seedlings need not less than 12 hours a day to be in the light. If it does not work, it is not possible, you will have to purchase lamps for shocking.
Be careful to sowing, from lack of light sprouts can begin to stretch. Before the dive, they do not need to feed them, just enough to moisten from the pulverizer in a timely manner.
Step 6. Split seedlings
When seedlings in the cups are growing a little, they need to be switched (in the event that several seeds rose in one container). It is necessary to leave only one thing - the strongest plant. At the same time, you should not pull out the "extra" sighter from the ground, because it is possible to damage the root system and the second plant. To remove a weaker copy, it is necessary to join it slightly above the soil level.
Tomato seedlings from a general capacity can be divert when seedlings will appear in 2 real leaves. Just do not confuse them with cotyadal - this is a common error of novice gardens. Real leaves are the second pair of leaves.
With the help of a small stick or plastic spoon, carefully remove each seedler with a small room of the ground from the total box and transfer to separate containers. Blind plants in the ground almost seedy leaves.
The soil for transplanting seedlings can be taken the same as for sowing seeds. Only this time it is recommended to add full mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1 tbsp. on 5 liters of substrate.
If you grow the tomatoes of different varieties, do not forget to stick to the glasses of their name, so as not to confuse the seedlings.
10 days after diving, the seedlings begin to form a new root system, and their growth is noticeably accelerated. With the advent of the third real sheet of plants begin to especially in dire need of light. But no less than this, they need the right feeders. Usually, the seedlings of tomatoes feed 2 times:
- 10 days after picking (5 g of urea, 35 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate on 10 liters of water);
- 2 weeks after the first feeding (10 g of urea, 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulphate on 10 liters of water).
You can feed tomato seedlings and ready-made complex fertilizers. If the plants are grown correctly, then by the time of landing in the soil, the thickness of the stems should reach 1 cm, and the height of the plants is about 30 cm. By this time there should be 8-9 leaves and one flower brush.
7. Rent seedlings
Timing the seedlings of tomatoes can vary depending on the regions.
|Culture||South and North Caucasian pho||Belarus, Volga FO||Central and Northwest FO||Ural Fo||Siberian and Far Eastern FO||Time from sowing to shoots (days)|
|Tomato for greenhouses||3rd decade of March||1st decade of May||2nd decade of May||2nd decade of May||3nd decade of May||45-50|
|Tomato for open soil||2nd decade of April||3nd decade of May||1st decade of June||1st decade of June||1st decade of June||45-50|
Finished plants should have a strong and thick stem, a healthy appearance and 6-8 of real leaves. The height of the plant, as a rule, depends on the variety, so it is difficult to navigate it.
Tax seedlings are very simple, if you follow all the recommendations set out above. In the spring, the growing tomatoes on the window will make a competing home flower bed. And how smells of seedlings after irrigation! Try to grow it yourself - and you will definitely work out!
To grow healthy and strong seedlings of tomatoes, it is not enough only to prepare seeds before landing and sow them correctly at optimal terms. It is very important to observe the correct agricultural machinery of cultivation, it is necessary to provide tomato seedlings. Suitable care and conditions. Incidentally, you can grow strong, strong, viable seedlings that will give a big and tasty harvest in the near future.
How to care for seedlings of tomatoes after sowing to germination of shoots
After the sowing of tomatoes, the seedlings need to create the most optimal microclimate. Seeds for quickly successful germination at home are needed certain conditions: high humidity and temperature, which, when there should be easy to ensure.
Consider how to properly care for the seedlings of tomatoes after sowing and before germination of germs:
- Make mini greenhouse. Immediately after landing, you need to cover the container with the soil and seeds with a lid or film, they will create greenhouse conditions (high humidity and temperature).
- Check the mini-greenhouse. It is necessary every day (preferably in the morning and in the evening) to ventilate greenhouse for 20 minutes. To do this, you just need to remove the cover or film, and before closing the container back, you need to wipe the condensate from the surface of the underfloor material. Care manipulation will avoid the appearance of mold in seedlings.
- Water from the pulverizer. After planting seeds, until the first germs appear, it is necessary to moisten the irrigation by irrigation, the most convenient to use the spray gun for this. If you water from any container, then water pressure can burst the seeds into the ground, because of this they may not exist.
- Maintain the desired temperature mode. Seeds for germination need high humidity (provided by mini-greenhouse) and high temperature around 23-25 degrees of heat.
- Remove the lid after the appearance of germs. After germination, seeds need to disassemble mini-greenhouse, but it is very important to do it gradually. First you need to remove the cover (or film) in the morning and in the evening for 2 hours, next day - for 3 hours, then remove for the whole day, and at night wear back, on the fourth day the lid is completely removed.
Care of seeding tomatoes at home after shooting
So, long-awaited shoots appeared. What to do next? You have an important task: grow full and high-quality seedlings. And when the plants are completely tiny, and when they have grown significantly need to handle them carefully, so as not to damage them overhead or root.
If you know what and when to do, you can easily care for young plants on the windowsill at all stages of development right up to landing on a permanent place in open soil or greenhouse.
Full lighting is vital for any seedlings at home. Without full illumination, seedlings will be poorly developed, will begin to stretch (they stretch in search of the light source). As a result, they will grow weak, thin.
It is recommended to put the seedlings of tomatoes on the southern or south-west window. The optimal length of the daylight: 12-15 hours. Therefore, you should additionally freeze seedlings by phytolampami (in the morning, in the evening and day in cloudy weather).
Suitable temperature in the cultivation of seedlings is the key to high-quality and healthy plants. Under the observance of optimal T, it is possible to achieve normal growth and development.
After the first shoots appear, it is necessary to lower the temperature with 23 degrees of heat to 14-16 degrees (the decrease in T helps to avoid pulling the seedlings). In this mode, plants must be about 7 days.
A week later, it is necessary to increase the temperature for seedlings of tomatoes to + 20-22 ° C (day) and + 16-18 ° C (at night).
Watering Tomato seedlings
The first 3-4 days after the appearance of germs, it is also necessary to gently water from the pulverizer (while after watering on plants, the sun's rays should not fall before they dry out).
Then the irrigation mode changes. At this stage, the pulverizer needs to be postponed. Now you need to water from a fringe or small watering. The main rules for watering the seedlings of tomatoes:
- Watering must be performed necessarily under the root. It is very convenient to do it along the edge of the tank or through the pallet.
- Water drops should not fall on the above-ground part of the plants. Moisturizing the stem and leaves can provoke hazardous fungal diseases (phytoofluorosis, black leg).
- It is necessary to water in carefully so that under the pressure of the water seedlings did not lie, the root system does not barney.
- It is possible to water only clean, soft, dilated water having a room temperature (optimally 20 degrees). Cold water will cause stress in plants, can provoke fungal diseases, loading the root system.
- It is advisable to moisten the seedlings in the morning.
How often do you need to water seedlings? It is difficult to say the exact terms of the procedure, because in different cases under different conditions the humidification frequency may differ. Determine when watering should be produced, it is necessary according to the state of the soil: The top layer must dry. At the same time, moisture should be made moderately.
Important! It is impossible to make a complete drying of the earthen coma seedlings, otherwise the seedlings will die. But it is also impossible to overflow plants, because you can provoke fungal diseases. It is very important to keep balance!
Abundant watering disrupts the normal air permeability of the soil (due to this, the root system gets less oxygen). Also, an excess of moisture in the soil contributes to the activation of fungi and pathogenic microorganisms, mold. All this can lead to the death of seedlings.
Tip! If you pour the soil, it is recommended to dry it immediately. To do this, it is necessary to neatly scatter on the surface of the soil calcined river sand.
Upborn seedlings of tomatoes
A good, high-quality feeding is a wonderful comrade for seedlings of any vegetable and flower crops, and tomato seedlings are no exception. but If you planted seeds in the purchase of soil for vegetable seedlings, then feed seedlings are very careful, preferably in extreme cases, for example, they are poorly developing, slowly grow. After all, the purchase of the soil mixture already contains fertilizers.
To correctly feed the plants, you need to follow the following rules of such care:
- It is important to comply with the optimal period of procedure.
- It is necessary to observe moderation when making fertilizers, because excess nutrients are able to harm plants. Especially bad plants react to excess nitrogen, because of this, they become thin, pale.
- Before the procedure of the plant is necessarily poured by conventional, clean water, and only after that a solution with fertilizers is made (without conventional root irrigation can get a burn).
- The amount of fertilizers in liquid form should be the same as the volume of water with standard watering.
- After the procedure, it is necessary to examine the above-ground part of the seedlings: if some drops hit the leaves or the stem, they need to wipe this place with clean water and go gently wipe.
Undercalinking tomato seedlings is made according to the following scheme:
- First feeding. The optimal deadlines occur for the period after the dive (approximately 10 days later, when the plants were recovered and adapted). You can make the following solution from the complex mineral fertilizer of nitroammofosk (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). The norm of such fertilizer: half a glass under one plant.
By the way! In order for the plants better fit in a new place after dive, you can spend a spraying of the growth stimulant (for example, epin, zircon) after 1-2 days.
- Second feeding. Feel the second time you can take 10 days after the first procedure. You can shed in the same solution as at first.
- Third feeding. The optimal deadlines for the third appointment of fertilizers to the seedlings of Tomatoes occur for the period to transplant to open ground (about 3-4 days). You can feed the following solution: Superphosphate (1 tablespoon) + Wood ash (1 tbsp.), Water (10 liters). The norm of feeding is half of the usual glass on one plant.
Note! For feeding, you can use ready-made comprehensive fertilizers designed specifically for seedlings. They are indicated composition, instructions for use. You can purchase such fertilizers in the Garden Center, a specialized store, in the online store.
Charging seedlings before landing for a permanent place
Transplanting seedlings for a permanent place in open soil or greenhouse is a natural and inevitable stage in the cultivation of seedlings. In this case, the gardener must help gentle plants to survive this procedure with minimal losses. Therefore, it is recommended to tempt tomato seedlings before landing at home. The hardening will prepare seedlings to new conditions, minimizes stress and improve the survival rate.
Hardening need to start spending 2 weeks before transplantation . In the first days, it is necessary to gradually lower the temperature in the room (for example, you can open a window, increasing time daily). It is advisable to lower T first to 16, then up to 14, then up to 12 degrees. But the main thing is to do it gradually!
A week before the disembarkation, you can carry out plants on the loggia or balcony (or on the street). You need to start in small: first leave for 2 hours, in the last 2 days before the disembarkation, it should stand on the street all day. At the same time, in the first days, it must be necessarily shaded from sunlight!
Why it is important to correctly care for the seedl of tomatoes in d Mandeshes
Obviously, high-quality concern is vital for plants on the windowsill. But to be more accurate, then without high-quality seedlings of tomatoes will be:
- weakly and slowly grow;
- will be vulnerable to diseases and pests;
- It is hard to take pickup and disembarking into an open ground.
Especially dangerous for seedlings of tomatoes. Lighting deficiency, low or too high temperature, high humidity, excess nutrients due to violation of the feeding mode.
With proper care, you can prevent various diseases, including a hazardous black leg of the tomato seedlings.
After sowing, you need to pay a lot of attention to young and defenseless plants, and it will pay off you with interest in the form of a generous harvest. Comply with the necessary conditions for cultivation and care for the seedlings of tomatoes is absolutely not difficult. It is enough to perform all the events in a timely manner: to produce regular watering, maintaining a normal temperature, lighting, perform feeding.
The cultivation of tomatoes in most regions of our country begins with sowing seeds to seedlings. Preparation of seedlings at home requires knowledge and small experience, because it is in vain to spend time, and the result will be deplorable, and to a good crop it will not happen. But this work is not so complicated to buy seedlings annually on the market, and each gardener is simply obliged to master and grow tomatoes.
Is it necessary to grow tomatoes through seedlings
The vegetation period of tomatoes is very long, from sowing seeds before harvesting is held many months, and it is necessary to start all the work on the cultivation of tomatoes already in March, when the greater territory of our Spring country has not yet really started. Therefore, no matter how sorry, almost anywhere without growing seedlings do not manage to do.
When in the 1980s. We, graduates of Moscow State University, distributed in Saratov, acquired by summer sites, one girlfriend could not understand the meaning of the word "seedling". And so I did not want to believe that the seeds of tomatoes first should be put in a pot or box, after which they holy and cherish in the apartment. They have in the village, on the Azov coast, where and the Oglochele germinates, there were only two stages of growing tomatoes: to plant seeds in a bed and harvest.
In the conditions of the middle strip of Russia, and even more so, in the northern regions, the cultivation of seedlings is mandatory. Fortunately, in contrast to the cabbage, which requires the growing seedlings of low temperatures (from 6 to 16 оC), with tomatoes in this regard, everything is in order: the conditions of the urban apartment are mainly suitable for seedlings, only the sun is not enough. Therefore, for about two months a year, the gardeners occupy all the free squares in the apartment with drawers and cups with tomato seedlings.
Lunar calendar 2018 for planting tomato seeds
Many gardeners are checked by their affairs, landing and leaving the plants with the moon phases and other heavenly shining. It is difficult to judge how the right approach is, but there is probably something in this, because everything is interrelated in nature. True, working person does not always manage to do everything in those days when the moon is ordered, but many pensioners try to adjust their gardening schedule under the lunar rhythms. The trouble is that in different sources you can simultaneously meet several different lunar calendars.
So, in one of the sources there are such favorable dates of seeds of tomatoes for growing seedlings: 18-20 and 25-28 February, as well as 1, 17-20 and March 24-28. Opening another completely distinguished source, we see that the February dates are shifted for 2-3 days, and Martam is generally practically not overlapped with the first option. Leaving February (after all, it is still too early for tomatoes), we are trying to deal with the March calendar and shifting a few more publications. In the next, we find such dates: 20, 21, 24-26 and 28 March. From the following source it turns out that, depending on the region, in March there are only three favorable for sowing of the day, and none of them coincides with the previous ones. And after reviewing with a dozen resources, it is possible to finally get confused with dates relating to favorable and unfavorable days for gardening gardens. Thus, a detailed review of information relating to astrology proves, to put it mildly, the fact that this area of human relations with nature has never become serious science has become.
Perhaps the dates specified in this table are more often recommended.
So, a brief overview allowed the gardener-an amateur working on a five-day in production, to finally calm down and engage in the cultivation of seedlings in those days when his free time appears for this. Relying, of course, on your personal experience and knowledge of the biological features of a particular culture.
Experienced Dachnik All operations for preparing for sowing seed carries automatically, knowing when it is necessary to get harvested seeds from the box, that you must first make it, where and how to get the soil, where it is kept reusable cups or wooden boxes or where and when you need to stock Peat pots. In his spring, some fertilizers have already been seized and one who has become suddenly deficient permanganate potassium, which is very necessary for disinfecting both seeds and soil.
Preparation of seeds
In various manuals, you can find various descriptions of the preparation of seeds to landing, so I will try to briefly describe my more than thirty years of experience, without claiming that this is solely correct. But the seasons without good tomatoes have not yet happened. It is necessary to make a reservation that I never bought seeds in the store, I use my own and "from the neighbors." Comment is not suitable. First, recently sells many seeds previously processed in one way or another, they must simply go to the pot right away. Secondly, many tomatoes are not varieties, but hybrids (F1). Their preparation is very different from the preparation of varietal seeds and is also minimal.
The first sowing usually begins immediately after March 8. At this time, I get the seeds of early varieties. Disinfection procedure is combined with seed rejection. To do this, I use a strong, very dark solution of potassium permanganate. Often, a small nuance is missing in the councils, which people who are far from chemistry do not pay attention. Manganese woman is very slowly dissolved in cold water, and in a large extent decomposed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve a small amount of drug to obtain a solution) to dissolve in warm water (degrees 40), periodically stirring and checking that crystals remain at the bottom. Convenient to half a liter jar pour about half of the cans of water. If you hurry and put the seeds there ahead of time, the insoluble crystals will immediately burn.
Often you can see the preparation tips for this purpose 1% of the permanganate potassium permanganate, but some strange numbers are written next. First, dissolve such a quantity is not easy, although the maximum solubility at room temperature and more than 6 times. Secondly, this is already a bomb that burns everything alive. Yes, and little in which apartment there will be scales, allowing you to take the necessary hits for the preparation of a glass of a disinfectant solution. Therefore, we do on the eye and do not fear. Treatment of seeds weakly-pink solution can hardly be considered disinfection, the solution must be dark. Painted seeds? Yes, it turns out anything terrible. They will cover the thin layer of the recovery of permanganate - manganese dioxide, which at the right stage will play the role of a trace element.
The disinfectant uses solutions of mangalling of various concentrations; I consider it possible to use a solution of dark purple color
In the jar with a cooked solution, smeared the seeds of one variety and keep them there for about 10 minutes, periodically bothering well. Those that during this time were not drowned, mercilessly throwing out, merging the upper layers of the solution to another jar through the siete. Then through the same siter filtering good seeds and rinse them very well under the crane water. I put in a wet cloth and hold in a cup of Petri a few days, watching in the morning and in the evening. (Who has no Petri dishes, can be placed in any small capacity, the cover is not quite hermetically covered).
As soon as there are at least some inclined seeds, I send a clock in the refrigerator for 12. Then I pull out and keep clock 8 at room temperature. Alternate cold and warmth three times. All. You can sow.
With the landing of these seeds already belated: it will be difficult not to break the roots
There are advice on the warming of seeds at the battery, the use of hydrogen peroxide, boric acid, growth stimulants (epin, honey, meal juice, etc.), etc. Apply even bubbling by air! Most techniques have the right to use, each has its own technique. But… Gardening should not turn into fanaticism, so we do only the most necessary. And disinfection and hardening (except for the southern regions) are necessary! But, for example, bubbling helps to skill with seeds covered with a solid oily layer (for example, carrots, parses), it is absolutely nothing to do with tomatoes.
As for hybrids, the seeds from them on the garden you still will not collect, it's no use: you will not understand what. And the bona fide manufacturers pack them in our time already prepared for sowing, they recommend sow dry. But ... I think, harden them in the conditions of the middle strip and the northern regions, if there will be no plants in the greenhouse, it will not be superfluous.
Preparation of soil
Seedling will grow almost in any soil, unless he is infected, that is, they are not taken from the bed, where vegetables grew up last year and raised diseases. But, of course, it is not that it grown in principle, but grown strong and healthy. Now in stores are for sale ready-made soil for any garden crops. You can buy a package of such soil to grow a dozen roots, but our person does not associate with such quantities.
Use such a package convenient, but very consistent
In Saratov, tomatoes are almost the "subject of national pride", and few of the dachensons plant less than 150-200 bushes. Therefore, on the purchase of the soil you can go broke. At the same time, the optimal soil who is advised in most guidelines is problematic, since these are equal parts of the peat, humid and the turf. And if in Central Russia peat is not a very big problem, then in the Volga region it is from the exotic area. Therefore, take that there is.
And in the country there are heavy, clay, but at the same time, the Black Earth, which grows almost everything, except, possibly carrots, but which requires mandatory loosenings after a certain number of hours after watering, otherwise - impenetrable crust. Here are a few vendors of this land and bring every fall, we leave on the balcony. Partly infection is frozen, but before planting seedlings, we definitely dilute the ground with sand (2: 1) and spill a well-solid solution of mangalls. If you do not forget to grab the compost with the giving, add it and how much. And some ash.
Starting the ground in the oven, I consider not a very good idea. First, being in the apartment during this procedure - the pleasure of dubious. Secondly, the soil should be alive, not a simple inorganic substance. And at the recommended temperatures (above 100 оC) not only pathogenic microbes will die, but all useful microorganisms.
So, we summarize. With the composition of the soil for seedlings of tomatoes, it is not necessary to bother, but it should be naturally nutritious and at the same time breathable, not too heavy. For the prevention of diseases of the seedlings, it is necessary to decapitate, wiring a potassium permanganate well by a dark solution.
How to grow strong tomato seedlings at home
Traditional methods of growing tomato seedlings - in common boxes and individual cups, but, as M. Zadornov said, "our person is strong improvisation," and as a result of which options were not born on Russian land! Leaving such adhesions alone as, for example, cultivation in coconuts, consider several different ways.
Growing on the windowsill in the house or apartment
In the apartment, the most successful place is usually a sunny window sill, but few such apartments (and such dacities), where all the seedlings would be able to fit on the windowsill, and because tomatoes are only a small part of the future garden ... Many owners equip additional shelves across the window, and The boxes with the seedle are installed in several tiers, but this approach is usually not enough, additional tables go to the move ... But in this case, without additional backlight it is not necessary. The best options are daytime cold light lamps or diode lamps; Special phytolambuses still allow themselves far away.
It makes no sense to immediately sow tomatoes in separate cups, because the dive for them is very desirable. Therefore, first carry out seeds of cooked seeds into common boxes, pouring into them the ground with a layer of 5-6 cm and separating the box by partitions by varieties.
First you can sow seeds to any convenient capacity: they are not very long to live here
Exceptionally convenient for sowing tomatoes liter (and larger) rectangular cardboard bags from under juice or milk. Cutting one of the large sides and having done the drainage holes in the opposite side, we get a wonderful disposable container for sowing one or two seeds, which will be possible after picking plants, do not regret, throw it away.
• In a box or package, pour soil, to dissolve, make small grooves in a depth of 1 cm at distances 3-4 cm from each other. This, in the absence of a special tool, it is convenient to make a pencil.
• Shedding the grooves with clean water or a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate.
• Distribute prepared seeds at distances about 2 cm from each other.
• Pour the seeds of the earth and no longer water.
• cover with glass or transparent film and put near the battery, the best temperature 23-25 оC, before shooting, the light is desirable, but not required.
• 4-7 days (depending on the variety and conditions) will appear. Box to rearrange on the window sill with an open window. The day should be a temperature of 16-18 ° C, and at night 13-15 ° C. Then, after 5-6 days, increase it to 18-20 ° C in the afternoon and up to 15-16 ° C at night.
• Water with warm water as needed, without overflowing to too wet state.
• When the first real leaflet appears, it is detailed by a comprehensive fertilizer, according to the instructions.
In this state, the seedlings can already be filtered, but soon to dive for individual apartments
• After the appearance of 2-3 properties, it is necessary to perform a picking in large boxes or separate cups. Throw the worst, weak copies. If these are separate cups, each of them must be at least a glass of size. If the total box is a soil layer thickness of at least 8 cm, the landing scheme is no more than 10 x 7 cm.
• Pennicated seedlings for 2-3 days.
• Drawers to deploy daily by different sides to the light, so that the seedlings develop evenly, not curved, did not stretch.
• 10-12 days after the dive to feed the second time.
O. A. Galichkin recommends to transplant seedlings twice: first dive into small cups, then, as seedlings grow, in larger. The advice, of course, is not bad, seedlings from this will only be stronger, will not stretch much, but where to take so much place in the apartment? And on the windowsill? The best seedlings grows in a liter pot. We believe: 150-200 pieces of such pots, and even peppers, eggplants, cabbage, celery, numerous flowers ...
So, in a large drawer, cups or peat pots, keep seedlings on the window sill or driven the table to it before disembarking into a greenhouse or open soil, that is, until it comes to this time, and seedlings will not grow to 15-30 cm. What is good apartment? You can always control the seedlings, quickly take measures to correct the situation. What is bad? Usually it is still too hot, you can not always comply with the temperature conditions. Well, elementary lacks the place!
Growing in Teplice
The presence of greenhouses significantly simplifies the cultivation of tomato seedlings, unless, of course, it is easy to get to the greenhouse, and it is not located in the country to which tens of kilometers. The advantages of the greenhouse are obvious:
• It is easier to regulate the temperature;
• You can provide sufficient illumination;
• A large number of space allows you to grow an unlimited number of copies of seedlings of different varieties and fertility terms;
• In connection with these advantages of seedlings, the root system is increasing, the root system is more powerful.
Well, if the greenhouse is heated, all problems are completely removed. Minus - one: the cost of greenhouse equipment.
In the greenhouse, each plant can provide space
The cultivation of seedlings in greenhouse conditions is absolutely of the same steps as growing at home, it makes no sense to repeat what to do to obtain strong plants. However, there are some features, and above all, it concerns the deadlines.
If the greenhouse is unheard, sowing depends on the region and current weather. So, in the northern regions (coolest than, for example, on the latitude of Moscow), seeding is possible in mid-March, unless, of course, in this time winter is no longer rampant. In the middle lane, this happens two weeks earlier. In heated greenhouse, sowing is possible at least in winter, if there is a need.
Temperature in the greenhouse during sowing should be about 20 оC, in the future the temperature regime is the same as at home. Fortunately, reduce the temperature in Teplice in March-April is much easier than at home. Yes, and in general, the greenhouse should often be told: in the stagnant air it is easier for diseases. Most often in greenhouses, as in the apartment, there are drawers or a pot, but no one bothers to sow seeds and straight into the cotton cars. Mixed reception is most rational: seeds in common boxes and subsequent picking plants are already in greenhouse garden. At the same time, if the greenhouse is used not only as a "transshipment point" between the sediment and the open soil, and the subsequent cultivation of tomatoes up to the harvest is supposed to be in it, it is possible to reconnect the seedlings and immediately at a permanent place.
Growing in a greenhouse
Under the greenhouse is usually understood as a small film (or with glass frames) shelter, that is, this is a compact analogue of the unheated greenhouse. Heating in greenhouses often provide the laying of the so-called biofuels: fresh manure (better by horse), straw, grass, etc., which, with decomposition, heats up strongly (for example, horse manure has a temperature of about 60 ° C). Biofuel is able to warm up the greenhouse for several months. The cultivation of seedlings in such a greenhouse is the most reliable and effective way to grow seedlings.
The advantages of greenhouse cultivation in front of the apartment method are the same as in the case of greenhouse, seedlings grow much more strong than at home; The advantage over the apartment is at a lower cost: it is the greenhouses for this purpose for this purpose, the majority of the villagers are not worth recommending such a way. The disadvantage, compared with the greenhouse, is that it is much more careful to track the temperature conditions: here you cannot just open the window, and change the temperature by 1-2 degrees is not easy.
All procedures for growing seedlings in the greenhouse are similar to those discussed above, but to put in the greenhouse the boxes or pots are not reasonable. Usually in the greenhouse immediately prepare the beds for sowing seeds, where they sow them in the same way as in the box or a box at home. Further care is similar, it also includes a pick-up seedlings, which is carried out here, in a greenhouse bed. Upon the occurrence of warm weather and the readiness of seedlings, it is hardened, removing the shelter, and then sear for a permanent place.
Use of various landing capacities
The use of boxes or reusable cups - traditional techniques in the cultivation of seedlings. The use of paper cups from under ice cream or homemade containers from polyethylene packages is also used for a long time. But in recent years, other approaches to the creation of "housing" have been distributed for seedlings.
The use of peat pots
Peat disposable pots are known for a long time; They are made of peat, compressed in the form of pots: geometric options and dimensions There are various. Peat for pots can be processed by fertilizers and growth stimulants. The advantages of using peat pots to paper or plastic are as follows:
• No seedlings are required when planning in bed;
• when transplanting roots are not injured;
• Environmentally friendly material of pots simultaneously serves and fertilizer.
The only inconvenience in the work is that the potters from irrigation will turn around and soften, so when transferring them from place to place, it is necessary to be neat. And it is better not to take in hand at all: put the right number of pots in the pallet and so contain. True, with a dense arrangement, it is possible to germinate the roots of one pot in another (the roots of most vegetables make it easy to break through this obstacle), and it is necessary to follow this.
Peat pot will go to bed with her apartment - seedlings
Some cultures immediately sow in peat pots and no longer touch, but the tomato seeds are better to first put in a separate box, and when the seedlings reached the seedlings of the desired age, they already have them in a separate peat pot. Due to the need to dive for tomatoes, such a well-known analogue like peat pills: they sew seeds of those vegetables that do not like dive.
Application of plastic bottles
We are so accustomed to plastic bottles, which I do not remember that we were not quite recently at all. And how did we do without them? After all, now in many cases the bottle of PET - a wand-coronary. Light, durable, often transparent ... Where only they have not adapted to the torture mind of the Russian man! Adapted and for growing seedlings, even to produce grape seedlings from cuttings.
In the case of tomato seedlings, plastic bottles are most often used only at the first stage: they are seeded with seeds, grown over the time required for the appearance of 2-3 real leaves, and then in a common way to peat or plastic cups. But there are lovers who, in large, five-liter plastic bottles, grown tomatoes even before harvesting, having them on the balcony.
So, when growing seedlings:
• An ordinary bottle is cut along to get two small plastic box for sowing seeds.
• At the bottom to pour a centimeter layer a grind egg shell: it plays the role of drainage and allows not to do the holes for the flow of excess water.
• Pour the soil layer, sow seeds in the usual way and grow them up to the dive.
Another option involves the use of the lower half (5- or 10-liter) bottles as a landing box, in which several instances of seedlings are grown up to the landing in the garden. The advantage over bulky boxes is in compactness, the possibilities of simple rearrangement of the bottles on the windowsill. But to use them for individual cultivation (one tomato on the bottle) is less economical. Pros and cons of the use of bottles are pretty conditional: someone is just more convenient.
Some use plastic bottles instead of large drawers
Applying toilet paper
Toilet paper is often used by rowers at the first stage of growing seedlings of various vegetable crops. This is an example of the so-called hydroponics: growing plants without the use of land, where various inert materials can serve as a substrate. In the case of tomato seedlings, except paper, the same plastic bottle or polyethylene package is required. The easiest option of the stretch of sprouts looks like this:
• Cut the bottle along in half.
• At the bottom of one of the halves to lay several layers of toilet paper.
• Between the layers, decompose the prepared seeds.
Paper plays the role of a substrate suitable for the first time.
• Square the paper of their pulverizer with water.
• Clean the bottle of the bottle with polyethylene film.
• Install the design into a warm illuminated place.
• When shooting appears, reduce the temperature, then increase again.
• Up to the appearance of two real leaves, nothing with a bottle does not do: the greenhouse effect is enough for good growth in seedlings at first.
• Disassemble the design and pick up the seedlings in the pot with soil.
Alternatively, use the paper in the form of a "snail", winding it into a roll, pre-laying on a polyethylene film, but such a design is more suitable for miniature plants than for tomatoes.
The advantages of using toilet paper are that at least two weeks in the apartment settle less dirt. The disadvantage is that choosing sprouts from paper is not very simple: there is a risk of hardly breaking gentle roots.
Features of growing on the north side
To grow seedlings of tomatoes, it is desirable that the windows of the apartment come out on the south, the seedlings need warmth and sun. If windows are located with Western, and even more so, the northern side, it will be necessary to highlight boxes with seedlings. To begin with, they should be positioned so that the seedlings are as much as possible to the glass, but the glasses did not touch.
You can use various reflective devices to increase the illumination: a mirror or, at least, aluminum foil. The screens must be positioned so that the maximum possible amount of light fall into them, and the light reflected in the seedlings.
In any case, if there are only the northern windows, the seeds at seedlings will have to heal a little earlier. And even artificial illumination is not at all natural solar lighting! By the way, highlighting incandescent lamps are undesirable: they heat the air strongly, and even for the seedlings of the tomato is unnecessary heat to nothing. Modern luminaires on diode elements are the best option.
Whether the picking of tomatoes is required
Some vegetable crops do not tolerate the pickup, it is undesirable, for tomatoes, the picking is required. Of course, seedlings will grow without it, because in the south and at all the seeds sow immediately in the bed at a permanent place. But one thing is immediately at a permanent place, and quite another - to survive the apartment conditions, where and with the temperature is not all right, and the light is not enough, and the breeze does not blow ... Seedlings in the apartment often just running around, so you need to at least force the roots to grow better And this is achieved by picking, during which the central root is necessarily pumped.
We are ready for picking seedlings when they appear the first two or three leaves, and this happens approximately 12 days after seeding. Previously, it is not necessary to test the dive: after all, in fact, this operation is the lamination of the lower segment of the central root to ensure the growth of side roots.
A few hours before the procedure, seedlings need to be well pouring. Spread seedlings follows a small knob or with the help of any suitable kitchen utensils. Do not be afraid to damage the root, but with sharp movements it is simply you can break. Why is the procedure so called? For its execution, any comfortable peg like a peak is used, often just an honorable pencil. This peak is done in the soil and with its help they give a sighter there, pre-pinching the root. Tomato seedlings should be plugged in almost the seedy leaves. It remains gently clipped with the fingers of the root and is good to pour warm water.
For the first two or three days, the sawn seedlings must be removed in the half and a little lift the temperature. Well-fitted plants will quickly continue their height.
Video: Picking of tomato seedlings
Self-cultivation of tomato seedlings allows and save money, and get plants of the desired variety, at the right time, and if there is some experience - and high quality. The process of growing seedlings is quite complicated, but the success achieved always gives pleasure: what is done with their own hands, necessarily raises self-esteem. Therefore, the cultivation of seedlings makes sense, unless there is minimal conditions for this.
Tomatoes, perhaps, the most popular culture among dacities. So, the question of how to grow healthy seedlings is relevant for many. I am pleased to share with you some tricks.
Love tomatoes to eat - love and chatting with the seedle! Although growing healthy seedlings of tomatoes is not so difficult if you know several tricks. Want to know what secrets are experienced dacities? Then read our article and learn to "build relationships" with a popular garden crop since the preparation of seeds to sow before landing in a greenhouse.
Preparation of seeds
It would seem: what could be easier than sowing tomatoes! I threw the seeds in the box with the ground, watering the water - and wait for shoots. And already at this stage, experienced daches will indicate you a serious error - the absence of pre-treatment of the sowing material.
Working with seeds begins with their careful analysis. It is important to revise the purchase and home seating and select the largest copies with a symmetrical shape. Visual inspection takes a lot of time, so there are ways to speed up the process.
- Method number 1. . Immerse the seeds for 5 minutes in a 5% solution of table salt. Those that surfaced to the surface are empty, and it is better to get rid of them.
- Method number 2. . Space the seeds on paper. Take a glass or ebonite wand and soda it with a cloth, so that it is electrified. Switch about 1 cm above seeds. Empty "grains" will be attracted, and they should be removed. Then mix the remaining seeds and repeat the procedure again.
Thermal processing is recommended for self-collected seeds, especially if the plants were sick in the previous season. There are several options for heating the planting material.
- Method number 1. . Place the seeds in the gauze and hang up near the heating devices for about 2 months. It is important that in the room it was not cooler 20 ° C.
- Method number 2. . Put seeds on a saucer and set up under open sun rays for 1 week. Periodically stir so that the sunlight can warm the entire seating material.
- Method number 3. . If you remembered the warming up before sowing, use the express method. Stop baking sheet parchment, pour seeds there and send to the oven, warmed up to 60 ° C for 3 hours.
On seeds (especially if you bought them in the market on the market or collected with independently grown tomatoes), pathogenic fungi and bacteria may be present. Infected seeds often become the cause of this epidemic when growing seedlings on the windowsill.
It is possible to move the seating material by lowering it for 15 minutes in a 1% heatman solution. After rinse and dry the seeds. Purchased preparations are suitable for disinfection, for example, phytoosporin m, sportscterin, etc.
Useful procedure is soaking. At the bottom of a shallow container, put a gauze, place the seeds on it and pour meal water so that it does not cover them completely. Next, wait for swelling.
When soaking seeds in a solution of biologically active substances, they are enveloped by a protective-nutrient shell film. It gives more "friendly" shoots and provides additional nutrition to seedlings, increasing their immunity. This procedure is called Duzhrovy.
Damage can be carried out with the help of folk agents, for example, in a solution of aloe juice, honey or wood ash.
Draising at home is carried out immediately before sowing, because The seeds treated in this way are not subject to further storage.
An important condition for young plants is the ability to quickly adapt to cold and temperature drops. And for this it will not prevent the seeds:
- Take a sowing material into a wet gauze, put on the plate and leave for a couple of days indoors.
- Place the refrigerator for 8 hours.
- Repeat the contrasting content for 2 weeks until the seeds are prohibited.
- Saving hardened seeds without drying.
Baroting is an oxygen enrichment procedure. This is especially important for old planting material. Place the seeds in the gauze bag and lower the water with water, where the special aquarium compressor start feeding the air. Continue processing about a day.
Barping reduces the inhibitory properties of essential oils, which are part of the tomato seeds and can delay germination.
Many dackets buy hybrid seeds. They do not require serious preparation before landing, because It is already in the enterprise. Attempts to improve the geilding of planting material can give in this case negative results.
Tomatov seeds and seedlings care
Prepare seeds, proceed directly to the crop. However, this stage requires a certain preparation.
Definition of sowing deadlines
Each itself determines seed sowing. By the time the transplantation on the permanent "place of residence" should be created as comfortable for the plant conditions. Even small one-day freezers can destroy seedlings. Therefore, the main factors when choosing a time of sowing are the region where the garden is located, the equipment of the greenhouse, as well as, whether you live in the country constantly and whether there is an opportunity in case of return freezers to make emergency measures.
When the seedling date of seedlings in the greenhouse is determined, count it from it about 55-65 days. This is a period for which seedlings will strengthen, but at the same time will not turn out. When growing with picking, add another week to this period.
Before you start the global sowing of tomatoes, do not be lazy to look into the lunar calendar. You can believe in it, you can not believe, but from the fact that you send the seeds to the ground in a favorable day, it will not be exactly worse. This advice is neglecting this advice, and then surprise that the neighboring the harvest is much richer, although tomatoes sazed with a difference in a couple of days.
Selection of pots / Drawers for sowing
If we grow seedlings without picking, make sowing immediately into individual pots. However, this method requires quite a lot of space on the windowsill. It is much more convenient to suck seeds into containers, trays or boxes. Pre-container should be displaced, and in their day to do holes for removing excess water.
Preparation of soil
The soils should be air-permeable (i.e. loose and light), nutritious and with acidity close to neutral. The easiest way to buy the finished land intended for the cultivation of seedlings. However, the soil can be prepared independently. Here are some options.
- 4 parts of peat, 1 piece of turf, 0.25 pieces of cowboat.
- Peat, humus and ferry land in equal proportions.
- 3 parts of peat, 1 part of steady sawdust, 0.5 parts of the cow.
If you cook the soil yourself, do not forget to enrich it with mineral components. For this, for this every 10 l of mixtures, add 3 liters of river sand, 1-1.5 g of potassium chloride, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 2-3 g of superphosphate.
If so much you stored in the cold, in a couple of days before use, transfer it to heat.
Soil pumped into containers with a layer of at least 10 cm (when growing without dive) or at least 6 cm (when growing with picking). Pour warm water, if you wish, make a groove to 1 cm deep into 1 cm every 3-4 cm and decompose the seeds in them 1-2 cm, plucked the earth slightly and once again moisturize.
Tar with seed seeds pack in a plastic bag. It is necessary to maintain the optimal level of moisture. The container must be indoors with air temperature of 25-27 ° C.
Caring for the first shoots
As soon as the seeds give germs (usually happens after 3-4 days), get sowing boxes from polyethylene packages and transfer to light.
An important meaning is the temperature regime. In the first 4 days after the seedlings, support 12-15 ° afternoon and about 3 ° C less night. On the 5th day, increase the temperature to 23-25 ° F during the day and up to 12-14 ° C at night.
In order for all seedlings to equally receive sunlight and turning to the Sun, they did not get bent in one direction, time from time to time turn the container with different sides. Since in March the Sun is still a little, and not everyone has the opportunity to put the sowing boxes on the southern windows, it is recommended to heal the seedlings of phytolampa. At the same time, the optimal duration of the light day for the seedlings of the tomatoes is 11-12 hours.
Watering the plants as the soil drying, not allowing both drying and the mooring of the soil.
At the initial stage of growing, tomatoes are in dire need of phosphorus, but it is extremely poorly absorbed from the soil. Therefore, if not to make phosphoric fertilizers in sufficient quantities, the growth of plants slows down, and their leaflets acquire a beet-purple shade.
It is possible to compensate for the deficiency of phosphorus not only by purchased fertilizers, but also by making an ash before sowing, at the rate of 1 cup on the bucket of the soil.
Seedlings are ready for picking after the appearance of two real leaves. This happens about the 20th day after sowing. Tightening with the picking is not worth it, because The roots quickly grow up and intertwined with neighboring seedlings.
- Pour the seedlings for 1 day before picking. The soil must be moistened so that the sighing can be transplanted with the land.
- Prepare a personal container for seedlings, pre-process it with a disinfectant solution. Approximate volume of individual pots or cups - 0.5 liters. Be sure to do holes in the bottom.
- Fill in the packaging soil, make a hole and place a sighter with a small room of the earth. Use a teaspoon or a special blade to gently get plants from the sowing box.
- Disturb the seedlings to seedly leaves, lose weight slightly around them and pour.
Care for seedlings to the transplant to the ground
Watering, making fertilizers, adherence to light and thermal regimes - all this is the basis for the care of seedlings after dive.
Water current goes through all organs of the plant, providing transportation of nutrients from the soil. Having distributed the power, water is almost completely evaporated, and the nutrients, on the contrary, are delayed, and due to the exchange of substances turn into plant tissues.
It is difficult to give a clear advice, how often to water the seedlings of tomatoes. It depends on the volume of containers, temperature and humidity, as well as from the age of the plant and its size. For example, seedlings water around once a week, but before the seedling plant itself requires almost daily irrigation.
Do not allow soil drying, otherwise the plants will begin to wither. Watering should be abundant so that the earthen kom moisturized completely. In this case, excess water can also harm. When the soil is constantly overcooked, oxygen access makes it difficult, and the roots are poorly developed. In addition, such conditions for the content of tomatoes seedlings often lead to diseases. Therefore, each next watering produce after drying up the top layer of the soil.
Water for watering should be warm, approximately 22 ° C. Tap water should be defended at least a day.
For normal growth and development of tomato seedlings, it is necessary to ensure proper nutrition. The list of useful elements is calculated by several dozens, but the most important are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Their deficiency can lead to the most serious consequences for plants.
The first root feeding with solutions of mineral fertilizers is carried out 10-15 days after the dive. The second - 10-15 days after the first.
For feeding it is best to use ready-made comprehensive fertilizers designed specifically for seedlings. The packaging should contain the composition, as well as detailed dosage. At the same time, complex fertilizers can be used not only for root, but also for extractive feeding (for example, spraying).
At home, it is easy to monitor the temperature regime and the level of illumination of seedlings. But after disembarking on a permanent place, it becomes more difficult to manage this (if only you do not hear the greenhouse). In the greenhouse, the air can warm up to 30 ° C, and then cool to 0 ° C. The sun can fry all day, and then hide and not appear for a week. To prepare seedlings to such changes in the environment, just need hardening.
10-12 days before the tomato landing for a permanent place, it is embodied by hardening by gradually reduce the temperature to 14-16 ° C during the daytime. And in the last 4-6 preset days, the seedlings and at all are put on the street or on a cold balcony - first for several hours, then half a day, for a whole day, and then leave for a day (provided that a substantial cooling is not expected).
Thanks to the hardening, the root system becomes stronger, stem thickened, and the leaves acquire an intense green color. A gradual decrease in temperature, the effect of direct sunlight and wind leads to the restructuring of physiological processes, and the immunity increases in plants. The tempered seedling is good and easily tolerates adverse weather conditions.
Tomato transplantation for permanent growth
An important indicator that seedlings are ready to move to the "permanent place of residence," it is considered to have 7 of these leaves. The stalk thickness should be at least 7 mm, and the height of the bustle is up to 25 cm. Plant landing in the unheated greenhouse is made from mid-May to the beginning of June. Terms depend on the climatic conditions of the region. Remember that even a few days when the air temperature goes to 5 ° C, can lead to a delay in development and diseases of tomatoes.
The soil in the greenhouse is prepared since the autumn. To do this, it is drunk, remove all weeds, compost and ashes contribute.
It is impossible to be made under tomatoes. Fresh manure. And in general, throwing this culture is dangerous, because She begins to increase the lush cap of the leaves to the detriment of crop.
Observe the crop rotation. Good predecessors of tomatoes are cucumbers. But if you have only 1-2 greenhouses, in which only tomatoes grow from year to year, change at least the top layer of the soil and carry out measures for the disinfection of soil and greenhouse.
Tomato seedlings fall as follows.
- On the eve of disembarking plants. Do this on the day of transplanting is not worth it, because Seedling will become fragile, and the risk will increase the roots.
- Pour the soil in the greenhouse, if it is dry. When moisture is absorbed, bursting the land.
- Sit down the plants according to the scheme proposed on the seed packaging. A successful option is to land in a checker order so that each plant is well lit.
- On the site of the alleged landing, dug the pits with a depth of 20-25 cm, water with warm water and pumped up with a small amount of soil. In the resulting story, place the plant along with a lump of the land from the pot. Pour again.
- Tempered, if it is high enough. But if the height of the bushes does not exceed 20 cm, and the stalks are quite strong, it can be postponed for later.
Transplant to greenhouse - stress for seedlings. Help plants adapt in a new place can special stimulants. The drug increases the survival rate in transplant, and also neutralizes radionuclides and salts of heavy metals in the soil.
Beginner tomatoes may be surprised how many nuances should be taken into account in order to grow healthy seedlings and get the desired crop. However, it is difficult to calm you: in reality, everything is not so difficult. Just a few years of practice - and you yourself will be able to write detailed instructions with secrets and tricks to grow homemade tomatoes.
Tomatoes grown from seedlings are characterized by good flavors of fruit and give high yield. The first important stage when sowing seeds, robus is called the preparation of the soil. You also need to be able to care for shoots and know how to strengthen the immunity and protect seedlings from insects, diseases.
Terms of sowing of tomato seeds for seedlings
To navigate when it is better to sow the seeds of tomatoes to seedlings, the planning of the dates will help when the sprouts will be transferred to open soil. The cultivation of tomato seedlings takes no more pair of months. You need to wait, when the first real leaves appear.
The weather conditions of the region affect the land of escapes to the Earth:
- In the southern regions, warm weather is happy already in March. It turns out that the grains can be sowed at the end of January or in February.
- In the north of frosts give way to warmth at the end of May. Therefore, the seeds of tomatoes are harvested for sowing in early April.
It will not hurt to see favorable days to dry out the seedlings seedlings in the lunar calendar.
It has been proven that at the growing moon in vegetable crops there is a quick slope.
If you sow seeds to seed out these days, shoots will appear in a few days. On the full moon the fruits are poured with juice and tasty smell. In this phase, it will not hurt to collect a harvest, but it is better to abandon the leaves.
Tomato seed preparation secrets
So that tomatoes show a good germination and in the open soil were resistant to disease, it is important to properly prepare seeds to sow. First of all, you need to select high-quality planting material. Large and heavy grain means a large content of nutrients in them.
To determine which seeds are suitable for sowing, and which no, planting material is placed in a solution with the addition of salt. In 1 cup of warm water, 1 teaspoon of salt is bred. The solution is allowed to breed 10 minutes.
Next, the dacket looks, whether the grain-eyed to the surface of water. They are removed, and those that remained on the day are washed with running water and lay out to gauze to the windowsill for drying.
If the seeds were collected from the past crop of tomatoes and in the winter lay in the cold room, it is recommended to warm them to revive them for a week. The initial temperature of which holds - plus 18 degrees. Gradually, the temperature increases and adjust to 80 degrees. The procedure is carried out 1 month before sowing.
Avoid disease will help disinfection . The most famous option to disinfect seeds is to pour them for 20 minutes with a weak solution of manganese. It will not be superfluous to lower the planting material for 7 minutes in a 2% solution of hydrogen peroxide, which is preheated to 45 degrees.
If the garden is thoroughly suitable for the preparation of tomato seeds for growing seedlings, you need to take care of increasing yields before sowing. Soak the seeds in the nutritional solution, the fertilizer is bought in the store. Immunocyto, Virgin-Micro, Epin, Sodium and Potassium Humas and Potassium are considered effective.
If there is no possibility to acquire industrial compositions, you can do the folk remedies: aloe juice and freshly squeezed potatoes juice. After processing the nutrient mixture, it is not necessary to rinse, it remains only to dry on the window.
The simplest way to prepare the planting material is considered to be soaking tomatoes in water temperature. The duration of manipulation is 12 hours. Every 4 h robus advise water and replace fresh.
If you missed the deadline for sowing tomato seeds to seedlings, this is not a reason to worry. The grain will warm up faster if it is easy to sew a wet gauze or toilet paper. The air temperature should be not lower than plus 20 degrees. Do not allow gauze drying, but also do not arrange a swamp.
Experts do not get tired of repeating: tomatoes - thermal-loving seedlings. After disembarking into open ground, plants are difficult to transfer drafts and shifting climate, they begin to root. As a result, the crop leaves much to be desired.
Strengthen the immunity of tomato seeds to seed out the procedure called hardening. Hardening implies alternate alternation of temperatures . The crumpled grains are placed on ½ days in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 degrees. Over the next day, tomatoes are stored at a temperature of from 15 to 20 degrees with a plus sign. The number of repetitions of the manipulation of 2-3 times.
If there is a compressor, the dacket is worth a barbating. Seeds are soaked in warm water in which oxygen comes. One end of the hose is fixed at the bottom of the jar with water and lowered the seeds inside. The compressor and the hose are passed into the glass air capacitance. As a result, the grain is mixed. Processing takes 12-13 hours, then there will be a visible effect. Further, planting material gets and perfectly dried. After that, embarking.
What a soil for sowing tomato seeds is the best
Standard soil, suitable for sowing planting material of tomatoes in containers, consists of the following components:
- Peat - Provides excellent drainage, passes the air to tomato roots, absorbs moisture and retains it in the ground for a long time. To the torf will not hurt to add deoxidizers, chalk. Dolomitic flour will suit for neutralization of acid soil. So that large fibers are not in the glasses, the fragile roots of the developing seedling seedling, peat sieves.
- Sheet primer - Although it differs with ease and looseness, the desired volume of nutrients does not possess. But as the basis for soil under the tomato seedlings, the sheet soil is quite good. The only nuance is not to take the land under oak and will, there can be a large number of tubyl components in it. Tomatoes do not endure and may die.
- Sand - Excellent baking powder, but only if it is pure river. Clay in the sand should not be. The sand is washed in water and then placed in a preheated oven.
- Perlit - Apply, if you failed to find sand without impurities. The material turns the soil into the loose and easily absorbing moisture.
- Humus Take overwhelmed. If the composition did not fall completely, it is fraught with the death of tomatoes. The humus is harvested in advance, by mixing the manure, branches and the cropped green mass.
- Sawdust Apply instead of peat, sand. Before mixing with other components, sawdust is covered with steep boiling water.
It is unacceptable to add such components to the soil for seedlings of tomatoes:
- Organic feeding at the decay stage. They highlight a significant amount of heat, which with more probability will destroy the grain. Even if the first shoots appear, shoots due to too high temperatures.
- Refuse to use the soil with the presence of clay. The clay turns the soil in heavy and dense, the spores will not be able to breathe.
- The soil can not be taken for the seedlings of the tomato near the lively route or near the chemical, industrial, metallurgical plant, even if it does not function for a long time. Soil decades retains accumulated heavy metals, seedlings necessarily absorb them.
Seedlings Tomato tender, so before planting seeds, the soil must be disinfected. Gentle, but at the same time, dacnishes are called:
- Figure. The components of the soil are designated above are still autumn and leave in a bucket on the balcony to wintering. A few days before the earthwork work, the soil is put in order to warm up to room temperature.
- Water bath steaming . Destroys bacteria, but retains microflora useful for seeds. Pour water into a large saucepan or pelvis, covering a distance of 5 cm from the bottom. Put the bricks and, applying a tripod for cast iron, put a bucket from the ground, and then cover the tight lid. Steaming takes 2-3 hours.
- Plenty of ground with steep boiling water And let it dry completely.
Soils that are considered to be the best for seedlings of tomatoes:
- To 1 part of the earth, taken on the garden, add the same part of the sheet soil, sand and humus. In bucket of water, make 10 grams of carbamide, 25 grams of potassium sulfate and 30 grams of superphosphate. This nutrient solution must saturate the soil with the missing trace elements.
- Mix the turf soil with peat and sand. If the peat is not available, replace purchased soil, but pay attention to the composition. If there are no supplements in the purchased soil, ½ l of wood ash and 2 spoons of superphosphate are added to the bucket.
- To 2 parts of the delicate soil, add 1 part of the humid and river sand. In the mixture, ½ liter of stove wood ash adds.
Seld tips on how to properly prepare ground seedlings, as well as other useful recommendations, give in the following video:
How to choose a container for sowing tomato seeds to seedlings
The quality of future seedlings depends on the tank where tomatoes are grown. Causes in which the landing material of tomatoes can be seized, a set, ranging from plastic glasses from under yoghurt, ending with peat pots. If you choose plastic boxes for seedlings, give preference to containers placed on window sills with drainage holes.
Boxes made from wood with their own hands. In the height of the boxes lay 10 cm. Before placing the grain in the container, the polyethylene film is placed on the bottom. Then through the walls and the bottom will not be seamless to water. Although the pallet also does not interfere with make it possible.
Care of tomatoes seedlings in wooden boxes is simple. Containers are transferred to the right place when necessary and rotate the desired side to daylight. When the sprouts proceed and grow up, the seedlings are transplanted into individual cups. If you do not dive seedlings on time, they can doctors in wood or seed too much.
Also, the garders grow seedlings in the trays. Externally, they look like drawers, only across the partitions along them. Pluses of trays are:
- Easiness and practicality of use;
- a small price of cassettes, durability of use (for 10 years);
- In cells there are recesses for removal of fluid, allowing to avoid the convergence;
- Guarantees the absence of a factor of the process of processing limited space.
Specialists advise to bypass the side of the cassette made of polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene. They have poisonous substances that, with the overheating of the material, harm human health.
The list of minuses of the use of trays for the cultivation of tomato seedlings includes such:
- A small amount of tanks provokes the dryness of the Earth. The cassettes are fragile, their walls are unstable.
- Wanting to get stem from the tray so as not to damage the earthen com, effort will have to make.
Peat pills are made of pressed material consisting of nutrients. For the seedlings of tomatoes, it is better to choose a container with a diameter of 9 cm. We gradually absorb water, the tanks increase 7 times. After an abundant watering and water absorption pills are ready for use. The grains are sown by making a recess at the top of the tablet.
Now about the capacitors that cost inexpensively and have optimal parameters for growing tomato seedlings. This is pots of plastic with holes in the bottom for drainage. For sprouts, tomato is better to buy plastic containers width 12-17 cm and 12-17 cm high.
Step-by-step seeds of tomatoes
Sowing tomato seeds for growing seedlings into a common box and in individual glasses involves a certain sequence of actions:
- Fill the container in advance prepared and slightly wet substrate.
- For your fingers in the box, form small grooves, withstanding the distance between the rows from 3 to 4 cm. If we are talking about pots, it is plugged in 1 tomato seed into each glass.
- In general capacity, try to retreat between grains 1-2 cm. Then the roots will not be gossipped too closely and the dive will pass without unpleasant consequences.
- Put the seeds with a small layer of earth, pour a pot.
Optimal conditions for growing tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings prefer the conditions of cultivation:
- Abundance of light . Put pots on the windowsill. In February of daylight, plants are missing, so take advantage of fluorescent lamps. The first 2 days after the appearance of the shoots are desirable to highlight the boxes, without turning off the lamp. Further adhere to the usual lighting format - no more than 16 hours per day.
- High percentage of moisture . Wrapping seedlings follows a couple of times a day from the spray gun. It will also not hurt to cover the overall box or tray of a piece of glass. So it is possible to recreate the greenhouse conditions for growing seeds at home. The glass is cleaned in a couple of weeks after sowing tomatoes. Alternative - applying air humidifier. The moisture content of the soil is checked in the morning. The sprouts were fought and look like a non-ladder, paint them immediately. If this is not done, at 12 h, the shoots are dried completely and perished.
- Day temperature indoors 25 degrees, night 15 degrees with a plus sign. Do not substitute seedlings to direct sunlight - it can happen to burn stalks and leaves.
- When the first shoots of tomatoes are formed, feeding the soil . Repeat the procedure every week. The best composition is the natural fertilizer based on the organic, for example, made from manure or grass. If you trust the industrial fertilizers more, select biohumus, humic feeding.
Pication and hardening of tomato seedlings
If the tomato seeds were planted in one box, the seedlings are better separated from each other after the appearance on the shoots of real leaves. This happens a week after germination. It is not necessary to separate the roots from the earthen coma. The new container is chosen by 200 ml. After a couple of weeks, the transplant is reused, in the pots of up to 1 liter.
Approximately 1.5 months after sowing at seedlings, tomato will appear with flowers with flower. After 2 weeks there is a transplant of seedlings to the garden. If you skip this moment, the crop will be weak. Tomatoes are brought to the balcony, gradually increasing the time of staying in the fresh air, so that plantings are accustomed to the conditions of cultivation that they are expected in the country area.
How to protect seedlings from pests and diseases
On TRU will indicate the sticky surface of the leaves of tomatoes . The main part of insects are collected by their hands, from the remaining individuals get rid of spraying with a solution of economic soap. 25 grams of soap are bred in 1 liter of water. You can also try processing by the preparations of Decis, Inta-Vir, Kinmix, PhyTenerm.
TRIPS are determined by silvery spots on the foliage . It will help them to destroy phytodeterm, akarin or vermitek. Spraying with preparations are carried out 3 times. The interval between the spraying week.
Mole whitebumping leads to drying tomato seedlings . It is possible to remove the pests using inferior garlic. Through the meat grinder passes 2 glasses of garlic cloves without skin. The mixture is spread to the jar and add 1 liters of water. Next are covered with a lid. After 5 days, infusion can be used, previously digging 1 teaspoon in 1 liter of water.
The cultivation of tomato seedlings is a painstaking process. But, paying due attention to the preparation of seeds, soil and creating optimal conditions for growing plants, you will collect a delicious and rich harvest, which will envy any experienced gardener.
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Maxim Romanov4 Publications: 149. Comments: 0.